Onion is the herbaceous biennial plant in the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae) grown for its ediblebulb. The onion is likely native to southwestern Asia but is now grown throughout the world, chiefly in the temperate zones. The botanical name of onion is Allium cepa. Onions are low in nutrients but are valued for their flavour and are used widely in cooking.

The stem of the plant is a flattened disc at the base and the tubular leaves form a pseudostem where their sheaths overlap. The leaves are either erect or oblique. The onion plant produces pink or white flowers clustered on stalks. The bulbs are formed just above the flattened stem of the plant by overlapping leaves. The bulb is made up of several layers, each corresponding to a leaf. They are are generally oval but shape can be variable.

Table of Contents


6 - 30 inches

Width-Circumference (Avg)

6 - 24 inches

Approximate pH

6.0 - 8.0

Growth Nutrition of Onion

Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients for onion plant growth and development. A typical onion crop will use about 150-200 pounds of actual nitrogen per acre during the growing season, with a majority of the nitrogen taken up after the plant has started to bulb.

Types of Onions

There are three main categories of onions:

Short-day onions will begin forming bulbs when there are 10 to 12 hours of daylight each day. They work well in southern regions where summer daylight is comparatively short. Some common short-day onions include:

  • ‘Stuttgarter’: sold in sets, early maturity with slightly flat shape, yellow

  • ‘White Bermuda’: extremely mild, with thick, flat bulbs; white

  • ‘Red Burgundy’: good table onion with mild, sweet white inside; short-term keeper

  • ‘Crystal Wax White Bermuda’: a great onion for pickling when harvested at “pearl” size

  • ‘Hybrid Yellow Granex’: sweet, Vidalia type

  • ‘Southern Belle’: ruby-color throughout

  • ‘Texas 1015-Y Supersweet’: stores well

Long-day onions begin forming bulbs when there are 14 to 16 hours of daylight per day. They are good for northern climates where the summer days are relatively long. Some recommended long-day onions include:

  • ‘Yellow Sweet Spanish’: large, round shape; yellow-white

  • ‘First Edition’: high-yielding, stores well, flavorful, creamy-yellow

  • ‘Red Wethersfield’: flat bulbs that store well, white flesh, red-skinned

  • ‘Aisa Craig’, ‘Walla Walla’: huge bulbs

  • ‘Buffalo’, ‘Norstar’: produce early but keep only until late December

  • ‘Copra’, ‘Southport Red Globe’, ‘Sweet Sandwich’, ‘Yellow Globe’: keep well

  • ‘Red Florence’: oblong shape

Day-neutral onions begin to form bulbs when they experience 12 to 14 hours of daylight each day.

  • ‘Candy’: golden, thick-flesh, jumbo bulbs; stores well

  • ‘Red Stockton’: large, red-ringed, white-flesh bulbs

  • ‘Super Star’: large, sweet, white bulbs

Planting Onions

When to Plant

Plant onion sets in the spring once the ground thaws and the temperature is reliably above 28 degrees Fahrenheit. Onion seeds are usually started indoors approximately six weeks prior to the outdoor soil temperature being around 50 degrees Fahrenheit. If you're starting with seedlings, plant them outside when the soil temperature is around 50 degrees Fahrenheit as well.

It’s also possible to plant in the fall in warmer climates. The onions will stay dormant over the winter and then continue to grow in the spring.

Selecting a Planting Site

Choose a sunny spot with loose soil. Compacted or rocky soil will hinder bulb growth. Also, avoid planting where other Allium species have been in the past few years. Pests and diseases that target the plants can linger in the soil. Container growth is also an option if you don't have proper garden conditions.

Spacing, Depth, and Support

To plant onion sets, press them into the soil so just the top is visible. Space the sets roughly 4 inches apart, and space rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Once the sets are in the ground, leave them alone; do not hill soil up around them. The sets are supposed to peek out of the ground at all times.

Plant seeds only about 1/4 inch deep. And thin seedlings to around 4 inches apart also in rows that are 12 to 18 inches apart. A support structure generally won't be necessary.

Growing Onions

How to Grow Onions in Pots

If your garden soil is too dense or you don’t have the right light conditions, container growth can be a good option for onions. Choose a container that’s roughly a foot deep. You can plant multiple onions per container as long as they have about 6 inches of space on each side. It’s also essential that the pot has drainage holes. Unglazed clay is a good container material to allow excess soil moisture to evaporate through its walls.

How to Grow Onions From Seed

If planting onions from seeds, plant them indoors in trays filled with seed-starter mix at least six weeks, and as much as 12 weeks, before outdoor planting time. Place the tray under artificial grow lights for 10 to 12 hours each day. Keep the potting mix damp but not soggy. When outdoor temperatures are routinely above 50 degrees Fahrenheit, transplant the seedlings into the garden.

Onion Plant Care


Onions need full sun—at least six hours of direct sunlight per day—to grow properly. With onions, the more sunlight the better.


Proper soil is the key element to growing onions successfully. The soil needs to be extremely well-drained—even sandy—and it should have lots of organic matter. A loose loam will work well. And a soil pH that hovers around neutral to slightly acidic is best.


Onions need regular water to support the swelling of the bulbs. Give them 1 inch of water per week. But don't overwater or allow the bulbs to sit in soggy soil because this can lead to bulb rot. A light layer of mulch can help to retain soil moisture.

Temperature and Humidity

Onion seeds need temperatures of at least 40 degrees Fahrenheit to germinate. And the optimal growing conditions for onions are between roughly 68 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Humidity typically isn’t an issue as long as soil moisture needs are met.


Onions are fairly heavy feeders. Fertilize them every few weeks with a high-nitrogen fertilizer to support leaf growth, which will produce big bulbs. Once the soil begins to crack around where the bulb is forming, the foliage growing cycle is complete and no further application of fertilizer is required.


Most gardeners grow their onions as annuals and harvest before flower stalks appear. Bees and other insects, as well as the wind, serve to pollinate onion flowers.


Because onions are typically grown as annuals, overwintering won't be necessary. If you're planting a fall crop in a warm climate, consider raised garden beds. They will help to keep the temperature more consistent for the dormant onions throughout the winter.

Harvesting Onions

The time required for the bulbs to mature depends on the variety and whether they were started from seeds or sets. But you can harvest onions at any stage; even seedlings thinned from a row can be used as green onions.

Onion bulbs are fully mature when about half of the top leaves have collapsed and when the bulb skin has a papery feel. Bulbs allowed to remain in the ground until 50 percent or more of the green tops have collapsed will store longer. It’s best to harvest in dry weather.

Once you see that half the leaves have collapsed, gently coax the remaining leaves down without breaking them off the bulb. Then, allow the bulb to sit in the ground and cure for a couple of days. Next, dig up the bulb, rather than pulling it. You don’t have to dig deep—just enough to loosen the remaining roots. Brush off any loose soil, and trim the leaves to about 1 to 2 inches from the bulb. Also, trim off the roots.

You can use freshly harvest onions at any point, storing them in the refrigerator once they're cut. To store the rest of your harvest, set the onions outside in a warm, dry spot for a few days to cure. Then, hang them in a mesh bag in a cool, dry spot with good air circulation. The temperature should be roughly 40 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. However, don’t store them in a refrigerator as that environment is too humid. Check regularly for signs of rot, and remove any culprit before it can impact the other onions.

Pruning and Propagating Onions


Onions generally don't require pruning. However, be sure to remove any damaged leaves promptly. If they're left to drag on the ground, they can introduce diseases or pests to the plant.

Propagating Onions

Besides growing from seeds and sets, you also can propagate an onion from scraps. This is a great way to stretch your harvest and get more out of what would’ve been waste. The best time to start this process is in the early spring. Here’s how:

  1. Cut roughly an inch off the bottom of a fresh onion, and remove the outer skin.

  2. Position the piece cut side up on a dry surface to dry out for a day.

  3. Place the bottom (root) side down in a container filled with moist soilless potting mix. Slightly cover the top with soil. Put the container in a warm spot with bright, indirect light.

  4. Keep the soil moist but not soggy. In about two weeks, you should start to see green leaves popping up through the soil. Roots will be developing at the same time. Once the leaves are several inches long and you feel resistance when you gently tug on them, you’ll know the roots have developed enough to be transplanted.

Potting and Repotting Onions

Use a quality organic vegetable potting mix with sharp drainage for potting onions. You can mix in some compost to improve the drainage and nutrient content. Furthermore, as it's best to choose a container that can accommodate the onions' mature size, repotting shouldn't be necessary during the growing season.

Pests and Plant Diseases

Pests and diseases that afflict other Allium species also can impact onions. They include:

  • Rot: During wet conditions, onions can develop stem or bulb rot. Avoid rot by making sure there is good soil drainage and air circulation.

  • Splitting: Bulbs can split if the soil is allowed to remain dry while the bulbs are forming.

  • Thrips: These small, yellowish-brown flying insects feed on leaves and can cause twisting and curling. Repeated attacks cause the foliage to stop growing, so the onion bulbs don’t mature. Plant resistant varieties, and don’t plant onions near grain crops. Neem oil and insecticidal soaps can provide temporary control.

  • Onion root maggots: Root maggot larvae hatch from eggs laid by brown flies near the base of onion plants. The maggots burrow into the stems, feeding on the plants below the soil and eventually killing the onions. Rotate plants to a different location each year to avoid infestation. Using row covers for seedlings can prevent eggs from being laid. And diatomaceous earth can also be effective.

Benefits of Onion

Onions are a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber and are known to offer a variety of health benefits, such as:

Lower Risk of Cancer

Many kinds of onions contain a wealth of chemicals that help fight cancer. Onions are among the richest food sources of a nutrient called quercetin, which is known to prohibit the activity or creation of cancer-causing elements. A quercetin-rich diet has been associated with a lower risk of developing lung cancer.

Lower Risk of Heart Disease and Stroke

Onions contain organic sulfur compounds. These compounds are the reason why onions have such a sharp, strong taste and smell. Organic sulfur compounds help reduce the level of cholesterol in your body and may also help break down blood clots, lowering your risk for heart disease and stroke. You should eat onions raw rather than cooked to get the most sulfur compounds from them.

Diabetes Control

Both the quercetin and organic sulfur compounds found in onions are known to promote insulin production, making them a helpful vegetable choice for those with diabetes.

Lower Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease

Flavonoids come from plants and are found in particular abundance in onions. One study has found that those who consume a long-term diet high in flavonoids decrease their risk of getting Alzheimer’s disease.


  • The bulb (rounded underground part) of the onion is used to make medicine.

  • Onion is most commonly used for scarring.

  • The bulb is an edible vegetable and is the most commonly used part of the onion, usually consumed after cooking although it can be eaten fresh.

  • It can also be eaten raw or used to make pickles or chutneys.

  • Onions also contain one of the natural oils sometimes used in hair oil.

  • Onion oil is authorised for use in the European Union and United Kingdom for use as a pesticide against carrot fly in umbelliferous crops (carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery, celeriac).

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