Mango Tree

Updated: Mar 28

Mangifera indica, commonly known as mango, is a species of flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae. Mangoes are believed to have originated from the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India

M. indica were domesticated separately in South Asia and Southeast Asia over centuries, resulting in two distinct genetic populations in modern mangoes – the "Indian type" and the "Southeast Asian type". Mangoes have since been introduced to other warm regions of the world.


Table of Contents


Height(Avg)

30 metres (100 ft)


Width-Circumference (Avg)

3.7 metres (12 ft)


Approximate pH

5.8 - 6.0


Growth Nutrition of Mango Tree


Fertilizers that combine phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen with manganese, zinc, and iron are considered the best for Mango trees.


A mango tree requires high-nitrogen fertilizer applications, but over-fertilization can be harmful. Listed on fertilizer labels as a series of numbers such as 8-8-8, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are the main plant nutrients a mango tree requires to grow healthy green foliage, flowers, fruit and roots


Types of mango

  • Honey (Ataulfo) - Honey mangoes are available from March to July. The primary sources are Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador. When fully ripe, the fruit turns deep yellow with small wrinkles and acquires a flattened oblong shape

  • Francis - Its available from May to June. The primary sources are Haiti and Ecuador. The fruit grows with green overtones that become yellow and change to more golden when mango ripens.

  • Haden - Haden is mainly cultivated in Mexico, Peru, and Ecuador. These bright red mangoes have green-yellow shaded skin with small white dots and an oval to round shape.

  • Keitt - Mexico, Ecuador, the United States, and Brazil are primary sources of Keitt mango. It is available from March to April, August, and September. They are famous in Asian cuisines, where they are enjoyed in pickles.

  • Kent - The main countries that are producing kent variety are Mexico, Ecuador, and Peru. This variety is ideal for juicing and drying. It is available from December to February. When the fruit starts to ripe, yellow dots cover its skin.

  • Tommy Atkins - Tommy Atkins mango is native to Florida. It is the most extensively grown variety in the United States. This fruit is primarily grown in Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala, and Ecuador. It is available from March to July.

  • Carabao - Carabao mango belongs to the Philippines. It is also known as Manila mango, champagne, or Philippine mango. It is the national fruit of the Philippines, and the country comes on number six after India, China, Pakistan, Brazil, and Mexico in its production.

  • Graham - Graham mango was originated in Trinidad from the seedling of the Julie mango. It is oval-shaped and turns yellow with bumpy skin when ripe.

  • Sein Ta Lone - Also known as a diamond solitaire mango, it is one of the popular varieties from Myanmar. This variety is available for two months and ends in June.

  • Alphonse - This Indian variety is a mild tasting mango with firm flesh that can range in skin color from purple to yellow, and is oblong in shape.

  • Edward - This fiber-free sweet and tangy flavored mango can range in color from pink to yellow, and is round or oblong in shape.

  • Kesar - This Indian variety is a fiber-free sweet mango that can vary in color from green to yellow with a round shape.

  • Manila - This fiber-free sweet mango can range in color from orange to yellow to pink, and has a narrow shape.

  • Palmer - This mild flavored, firm flesh mango ranges from purple to red to yellow, and is oblong in shape.

  • Dasheri - This variety is available from mid-May to late August. Lucknow state in India is the highest producer of this variety. Dasheri is long and oval-shaped, with yellow-green skin when ripe.

  • Chausa - Hardoi in North India is famous for Chausa mangoes. The fruit is consumed by sucking. You can have this juicy mango in the summers. Chausa mango has its roots in Multan, Pakistan.

  • Bombay Green - Bombay Green variety is cultivated in the Northern part of the Indian subcontinent. It is also famous as Malda and Shehroli. It displays Spanish green peel and prized with an aromatic flavor. They are available from May to July.

  • Langra - Langra is the most well-known mango variety of the Northern Indian sub-continent. It originally belongs to Varanasi, and the best variety is from Patna and Bihar, the states in India. The fruit has a juicy flavor, sweet and tart taste.

  • Amrapali - Amrapali is a hybrid between Dasheri and Neelam Mangoes and was created in 1971. People grow it all over India, in farms and orchards. The fruit has a short shelf life as compared to the other mango varieties. It can also grow it in containers due to the small size of the tree.

  • Neelam - These mangoes are available throughout the season. Though the tastiest ones come in the month of June when monsoons occur. They are grown all over the world.

  • Banganpalli / Safeda - Banganpalli hits the market first in the season. This mango variety belongs to Andhra Pradesh state in India.

  • Chok Anan - Chok Anan or ‘chocanon,’ is native to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, and Pakistan. It is also popular as ‘honey mango’ and miracle mango, as it fruits twice a year, in both summer and winter seasons.

  • Badam mango - The most popular and one of the most consumed mangoes in India, the Badam is famous for its size, canary yellow color, and flesh with juicy taste. Karnataka and the Andhra Pradesh States of India are the leading producers of it.

  • Totapuri - It has one of the most unique shapes in mangoes! It is oblong, with pointed ends and a golden yellow color. The fruit has a distinctive sweet/sour taste and hits the market early in the summer of India.

  • Tong Dam - Unline the most popular mangoes, it stays green even when it gets fully ripe. The mango gets very sweet when ripe. Also, the green outer skin saves it from pests attacks.

  • Mamuang Ok Rong - Simply the most popular mango in Thailand, the locals eat it with a sticky rice dish. The fruit is exceptionally sweet and also carries a sweet musky fragrance.

Raise as a Plant

Nitrogen can burn a young mango tree's roots if applied as a chemical fertilizer, but fish emulsion and other organic, slow-release fertilizers are unlikely to cause harm.

A tree that's growing in soil rich in peat, well-rotted manure or other organic matter may not require fertilizer, providing its leaves are a rich green and the tree's growing strongly.


Little and Often

  1. Regular applications of a low-strength organic fertilizer promote steady growth in a mango tree. If applying fish emulsion, shake the container before opening it. Dilute a 5-1-1 fish emulsion product at a rate of 2 tablespoons per gallon and apply it within the drip line of the tree, wetting the soil to a depth of 6 inches. Apply the fertilizer monthly from early spring to mid-summer, or dilute and apply the fertilizer according to the manufacturer's instructions. As the tree grows wider, increase the amount of fertilizer accordingly to fill the area within the drip line.

Sea Change

  1. Applying diluted liquid seaweed fertilizer to a mango tree's foliage supplies the micro-nutrients it requires. Micro-nutrients are trace elements plants require in differing amounts and according to soil types. A mango tree benefits from magnesium, zinc, and manganese, such as supplied in liquid seaweed fertilizers. Dilute a liquid seaweed product at a rate of 2 tablespoons per gallon of water and spray the solution on the mango tree foliage within reach in spring, summer and fall, applying enough to wet the leaves but not cause them to drip. Alternatively, dilute and apply the product according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Iron Bound

  1. A mango growing on chalky, limey or poor soils can benefit from chelated iron fertilizer. Soils with a high pH can cause iron chlorosis in susceptible plants, such as mango. Symptoms include yellowing between the green veins on leaves and white leaves in severe cases. Young foliage usually shows the first signs of iron chlorosis. Dilute a 5.4 percent chelated iron and 12.8 percent soluble manganese product at a rate of 1 1/2 teaspoon per gallon of water, and spray the mango tree foliage that's within reach until it's wet but not dripping, or dilute and apply the product according to the manufacturer's instructions. Spraying chelated iron annually either before blooming or after harvest should correct iron chlorosis.


FERTILIZER SCHEDULE FOR FRUIT CROPS

Manures and fertilizers may be applied in September – October. Fertilizers are applied 45 to 90 cm away from the trunk up to the peripheral leaf drip and incorporated.



​Manures and Fertilizers

1 Year old (Kg per tree)

Annual increase (Kg per tree)

Annual increase (Kg per tree)

FYM

10.00

10.00

50

​N

0.20

0.20

1.0

P

0.20

0.20

1.0

K

0.30

0.30

1.5



Disease : Powdery mildew



Disease symptoms

  • The characteristic symptom of the disease is the white superficial powdery fungal growth on leaves, stalks of panicles, flowers and young fruits.

  • The affected flowers and fruits drop pre-maturely reducing the crop load considerably or might even prevent the fruit set.

  • The fungus parasitizes young tissues of all parts of the inflorescence, leaves and fruits.

  • Young leaves are attacked on both the sides but it is more conspicuous on the grower surface. Often these patches coalesce and occupy larger areas turning into purplish brown in colour

Survival and spread

  • The powdery mildew fungus overwinters in dormant buds. When conditions are favorable for growth of the fungus in spring, spores are produced, released, and cause new infections. Secondary spread of the disease can occur if spores are produced in these new infections

Favourable conditions

  • Rains or mists accompanied by cooler nights during flowering are congenial for the disease spread.


Anthracnose



Disease symptoms

  • The disease causes serious losses to young shoots, flowers and fruits It is also affects fruits during storage.

  • The disease produces leaf spot, blossom blight, wither tip, twig blight and fruit rot symptoms. Tender shoots and foliage are easily affected which ultimately cause „die back‟ of young branches. Older twigs may also be infected through wounds which in severe cases may be fatal.

  • Depending on the prevailing weather conditions blossom blight may vary in severity from slight to a heavy infection of the panicles. Black spots develop on panicles as well as on fruits. Severe infection destroys the entire inflorescence resulting in no setting of fruits. Young infected fruits develop black spots, shrivel and drop off.

  • Fruits infected at mature stage carry the fungus into storage and cause considerable loss during storage, transit and marketing.


Survival and spread

  • Fungus survives in dead twig and other host for long time which is the source of primary infection.

Favourable conditions

  • High humidity, frequent rains and a temperature of 24-32oC fabours the development of disease.

Die back



Disease symptoms

  • The pathogen causing dieback, tip dieback, graft union blight, twig blight, seedling rot, wood stain, stem-end rot, black root rot, fruit rot, dry rot, brown rot of panicle etc. The disease is most conspicuous during October November.

  • It is characterized by drying back of twigs from top downwards, particularly in older trees followed by drying of leaves which gives an appearance of fire scorch. Internal browning in wood tissue is observed when it is slit open along with the long axis.

  • Cracks appear on branches and gum exudes before they die out. When graft union of nursery plant is affected, it usually dies


Survival and spread

  • Pathogens survive in plant debris which is the source of primary inoculums.

Favourable conditions

  • High humidity and moist conditions favours the development of disease. The disease is most common in October-November.

Phoma blight



Disease symptom

  • The symptoms of the disease are noticeable only on old leaves. Initially, the lesions are angular, minute, irregular, yellow to light brown, scattered over leaf lamina.

  • As the lesions enlarge their colour changes from brown to cinnamon and they become almost irregular.

  • Fully developed spots are characterized by dark margins and dull grey necrotic centres. In case of severe infection such spots coalesce forming patches measuring 3.5-13 cm in size, resulting in complete withering and defoliation of infected leaves.


Survival and spread

  • The pathogen is seed borne fungus and inoculums present in the seeds are source of primary infection. Fungus also survives on glumes, fruit and plant debris.

Favourable conditions

  • Rainy seasons favour the development of disease.

Bacterial canker



Disease symptoms

  • The disease is noticed on leaves, leaf stalks, stems, twigs, branches and fruits, initially producing water soaked lesions, later turning into typical canker.

  • On leaves, water soaked irregular satellite to angular raised lesions measuring 1-4 mm in diameter are formed. These lesions are light yellow in colour, initially with yellow halo but with age enlarge or coalesce to form irregular necrotic cankerous patches with dark brown colour.

  • On fruits, water-soaked, dark brown to black coloured lesions are observed which gradually developed into cankerous, raised or flat spots. These spots grow bigger usually up to 1 to 5 mm in diameter, which covers / almost the whole fruit.

  • These spots often, burst extruding gummy substances containing highly contagious bacterial cells.


Survival and spread

  • In lesions on plant parts and can also survive for long periods in diseased plant tissues.

Favourable conditions

  • Spring session is responsible for the development of diseases.

Red rust



Disease symptoms

  • Red rust disease, caused by an alga, has been observed in mango growing areas. The algal attack causes reduction in photosynthetic activity and defoliation of leaves thereby lowering vitality of the host plant.

  • The disease can easily be recognized by the rusty red spots mainly on leaves and sometimes on petioles and bark of young twigs and is epiphytic in nature.

  • The spots are greenish grey in colour and velvety in texture. Later, they turn reddish brown. The circular and slightly elevated spots sometimes coalesce to form larger and irregular spots. The disease is more common in closely planted orchards.


Survival and spread

  • The pathogens reproduce and survive in spots on leaves or stems and in fallen plant host debris.

Favourable conditions

  • Frequent rains and warm weather are favorable conditions for these pathogens. For hosts, poor plant nutrition, poor soil drainage, and stagnant air are predisposing factors to infection by the algae

Sooty mould



Disease symptoms

  • The disease is common in the orchards where mealy bug, scale insect and hopper are not controlled efficiently.

  • The disease in the field is recognized by the presence of a black velvety coating, i.e., sooty mould on the leaf surface. In severe cases the trees turn completely black due to the presence of mould over the entire surface of twigs and leaves.

  • The severity of infection depends on the honey dew secretion by the above said insects. Honey dew secretions from insects sticks to the leaf surface and provide necessary medium for fungal growth.


Survival and spread

  • The severity of infection depends on the honey dew secretions by the scale insects which provide the necessary medium for the fungal growth.

  • Transmission occurs by air-borne as co-spores.

Favourable conditions

  • High humidity and moist situation favours the development of disease.

Mango malformation



Disease symptoms

  • Vegetative malformation: Vegetative malformation is pronounced in young seedlings. The affected seedlings develop vegetative growths which are abnormal growth, swollen and have very short internodes.

  • Floral malformation: The flower buds are transformed into vegetative buds and a large number of small leaves and stems, which are characterized by appreciably reduced internodes and give an appearance of witches‟ broom. The flower buds seldom open and remain dull green.


Survival and spread

  • The disease is mainly spread via infected plant material. Mango malformation disease spreads slowly within affected orchards.

  • The mango bud mite, Aceria mangiferae, has been associated with mango malformation disease as wounds from the mites‟ feeding activity are thought to facilitate fungal infection.

Favourable conditions

  • Moist weather favours the development of disease.

Gummosis



Disease symptoms

  • The disease is characterized by the presence of profuse oozing of gum on the surface of the affected wood, bark of the trunk and also on larger braches but more common on the cracked branches.

  • In severe cases, droplets of gum trickle down on stem, bark turn dark brown with longitudinal cracks, rots completely and the tree dries up because of cracking, rotting and girdling effects


Survival and spread

  • Pathogen survives in disease plant debris.

Favourable conditions

  • Warm weather favours the development of disease.

Root rot & Damping off



Disease symptoms

  • The disease is characterized by sudden dropping of leaves after the emergence of seedlings from the soil.

  • During prolonged rainy and humid weather, infection occurs at / or below the ground level with circular to irregular water soaked patches.

  • These patches enlarge and ultimately girdle the entire base of the seedlings.


Survival and spread

  • Disease is soil borne and pathogen survives in soils of orchards. Primary infection occurs by soil and secondary by conidia through rain or wind.

Favourable conditions

  • High humidity, high soil moisture, cloudiness and low temperatures below 24° C for few days are ideal for infection and development of disease.

Scab



Disease symptoms

  • The scab fungus attack leaves, panicles, blossoms, twigs, bark of stems and mango fruits. Spots are circular, slightly angular, elongated, 2-4 mm in diameter, brown but during rainy season, lesions differ in size, shape and colour.

  • Symptoms produced by the disease are very much like those of anthracnose.

  • On young fruits, the infection is grey to grayish brown with dark irregular margins. As the fruit attains in size, spots also enlarge and the centre may become covered with the crack fissure and corky tissues.


Survival and spread

  • The pathogen survives in the form of resting spore in the soil debris.

Favourable conditions

  • Suitable temperatures and moisture promote the release of Elsinoemangiferaespores. This cycle of secondary infections continues throughout the summer, until the leaves and fruit fall from the tree at the onset of winter.

Postharvest diseases



  • The mango fruit is susceptible tomany postharvest diseases caused by anthracnose (C. gloeosporioides) and stem end rot (L. theobromae) during storage under ambient conditions or even at low temperature. Aspergillus rot is another postharvest disease of mango.

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