Daisy

Daisy, any of several species of flowering plants belonging to the aster family (Asteraceae). The name daisy commonly denotes the oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), the Shasta daisy (L. ×superbum), and the English, or true, daisy (Bellis perennis). These and other plants called daisies are distinguished by a composite flower head composed of 15 to 30 white ray flowers surrounding a centre consisting of bright yellow disk flowers, though other colour combinations are common.



Bellis perennis is native to western, central and northern Europe, including remote islands such as the Faroe Islands, but has become widely naturalised in most temperate regions, including the Americas and Australasia. The oxeye daisy is native to Europe and Asia but has become a common wild plant in the United States and elsewhere.


Table of Contents


Height(Avg)

1 - 4 feet


Width-Circumference (Avg)

1 - 3 feet


Approximate pH

5.5 - 8.0


Growth Nutrition of Daisy


To keep the daisies healthy, providing them nutrition is very necessary. You should apply all-purpose liquid fertilizer every two weeks after planting and once a month after that. You can use high phosphorus fertilizers (10-15-10) just before the plant blooms for best results.


Varieties of Daisy


There are many varieties of daisies, from the best-known variety featuring yellow centers and white flowers to fast-growing wildflowers. These are some of the different types to add to your garden:

  • Shasta daisy (Leucanthemum x superbum): The Shasta daisy is perhaps the most well-known type of daisy. It has white petals surrounding a yellow center.


  • Common daisy (Bellis perennis): Perhaps the most recognizable daisy, the common daisy (also known as the lawn daisy or English daisy) has a flat disk shape with a ring of petals around the center.


  • Barberton daisy (Gerbera jamesonii): This daisy comes in shades of red, pink, orange, and yellow and can feature single or semi-double blooms.


  • Marguerite daisy (Argyranthemum frutescens): The Marguerite daisy comes in white, yellow, and pink flowers.


  • Oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare): These white flowers typically grow as wildflowers in fields and meadows, and they can grow and spread easily in your garden.


  • Painted daisy (Tanacetum coccineum): These flowers have yellow centers surrounded by petals that can be red, yellow, pink, violet, or white.


  • African Daisy (Osteospermum ecklonis): These flowers have large pink, orange, red, or yellow petals. the African daisy is a great perennial ground cover option that enjoys lots of sunlight and doesn't require much water.


  • Coneflower Daisy (Echinacea): Known for their drooping petals and spiky flower heads, coneflower daisies are popular with bees and butterflies, but they may need some protection from heavy rainfall to thrive.


  • Gloriosa Daisy (Rudbeckia hirta): Also known as black-eyed Susans, gloriosa daisies can easily be grown from seeds in your garden. They attract bees and butterflies but are not particularly interesting to deer.


  • Cape Daisy (Dimorphotheca ecklonis): Rich in pollen and known to attract bees, the cape daisy comes in colors like purple, yellow, and white and sprouts in bushes that can grow up to 4 feet tall and 3 feet wide.


  • Florist's Daisy (Chrysanthemum morifolium): The multiple layers of petals on the florist's daisy give it a pom pom-like appearance making it popular for cut flower bouquets and arrangements.


Planting Daisies


Daisies, just like their cheerful appearance would suggest, are sun-loving plants. Plant them in full sun for the best and most rewarding blooms all season long. Perennial daisies are easy to grow from seed, root division, or plants purchased from your local nursery. They are also great to separate at the root ball to share your artful bloomers with friends and neighbors.


Grow from seed: Plant your daisy seeds early Spring. Seeds can be sown directly into the garden or started in covered seed containers indoors. Plant your seeds in the soil about 1/8 inch deep. You can expect them to germinate in 10-20 days. Daisy plants will bloom the following year after one season’s growth.


Planting rooted plants: Dig a hole that is twice the diameter of the pot in came in. Then place the plant in the hole, using care to ensure that the top of the root ball is flush with the surface of the soil. Loosely fill in the rest of the hole.


Care for Daisies

  • Watering and nutrients. Water your newly-planted daisy every day for a week or so, then scale back to every few days. Once established, it should only need supplemental watering when you are experiencing drought conditions.

  • Pruning. Daisies do not generally need pruning, but deadheading the spent flowers may result in a second flush of blooms.

  • Pollination. Many daisies are pollinator magnets, and will draw bees and other insects to the garden to feast on their flowers. If not deadheaded, seeds will form on the flower stalks and can be harvested once they are dry.


Harvesting Seed


When and How to Harvest


Stop deadheading the daisy plant toward the end of the growing season - September or October, depending on region. This prompts it to stop producing flowers and to put its energy into producing seed. The seed head is located in the middle of the petals - it’s the part of the flower that used to be yellow. It’s important to allow the seed head to completely ripen before picking it from the plant. It will turn brown and may crack when it’s ripe.


Cut the stem at the base of the plant and enclose the seed head end in a paper bag, secured with string. Hang the paper bag upside down (with the seed head pointing down) in a dry area to dry completely, and shake the stem so the capsule releases the seeds within the bag.


Pests and Diseases


Pests


Eating and sucking noxious insects can affect daisies badly. They include aphids, spider mites and white moth sign lice.


Aphids: Aphids leave sticky spots on the leaves. In addition, the leaves curl up and eventually wither away.


Against this voracious leaf pest a solution of soft soap and water has been proven. With this, the marguerite is sprayed several times in succession. A stinging nettle extract is also extremely effective for the control of aphids.


Spider mites: Yellow-stained leaves and webs on the underside of leaves indicate an attack of spider mites. They can be easily destroyed with pesticides. Garden centers provide pesticides with biological as well as chemical substances.


Whitefly: The damage pattern of moth sign lice is easily recognizable. Affected leaves turn yellow and dry.

Like aphids, moth shield lice can be treated with a solution of soft soap and water.


Diseases


Mold and root rot: There would be mold on the one hand. It usually occurs when daisies are too wet, so they are overly watered. It may form after a short time at roots and leaves mold. The plant looks stunted and its leaves get brown spots. In addition, the musty odor emanating from the plant is a definite feature of the decaying mold. Most affected are daisies in planters.


If you detect such a mold, then you should absolutely dry your plant. They take their perennials from the pot and remove rotten roots and fallen leaves. Now rinse the roots with clear water and then let it dry slightly in the air. Then plant their marguerites with new soil in the pot.


By the way: Daisies like a well-drained soil, both in the field and in the pot. You should therefore mix some sand under the fresh, highly compost-containing potting soil and then potted their perennial.


Blattffleckenkrankheit: On the other hand, the marguerite is attacked by the leaf blotch. This usually occurs when the plant is too shady and too moist. This fungal disease causes black or brownish spots on the leaves. Affected leaves should be promptly removed and disposed of with household waste.


Do not throw any parts of plants on the compost that have been attacked by a fungal disease. The spores of these fungi are resistant and survive the composting harmless. You can later infect the soil in the garden again. Additional treatment of the marguerite with a fungicide for the leaf spot disease is advisable.


Mildew: The mildew is one of the most common fungal diseases in the garden at all. Its spores, which are mainly transmitted by the wind, find in humid weather an excellent breeding ground on the plants.


Affected daisies can be recognized by the light gray to white coating on the leaves. It is recommended to spray the diseased perennial with a water-milk mixture. To do this, mix about nine parts of water with one part of Vollmich. Use this solution to spray your daisy. When the mixture has dried on the leaves, rinse the plant with clear water.


Continue this treatment three times in the next few days.


Benefits of Daisy


Brighten skin


The daisy flower extract is used in beauty or skin care products and cosmetics to made toners, serums, ointments, lotions etc. It contains natural substance known as L-arbutin which brightens skin. The excessive exposure to the sun’s UV rays causes overproduction of melanin that results in discoloration or hyper pigmentation that becomes obvious age as dark spots. The extract of L-arbutin blocks.


Lower dark spots


The L-arbutin in the extract can block the formation of melanin, thus effectively reducing dark spots production. Furthermore, its organic acids, particularly tartaric and malic acid, also contributes in exfoliating the skin. Daisy flower extract also can be a good substitute of Hydroquinone, which is a substance widely used to resolve hyperpigmentation, as it is naturally derived instead of harsh and toxic ingredients.


Prevent saggy skin


The daisy flower symbolizes purity and innocence. Its name shows its ability to maintain pure and innocent look with its anti-aging properties. When the skin is exposed to UV sun rays, the collagen fibers are damaged, scar tissues are build up and creation of new collagen is required for healthy and supple skin. When we grow older, the skin begins to wrinkle, sagging and drooping. The make up products that contains daisy extract helps to aid and keep the skin look fresh and youthful.


Respiratory health


The extract of daisy flower has antitussive, anti-inflammatory and expectorant and is used in form of tea for curing bronchitis, cold and other respiratory tracts. Traditionally daisy is used to cure bronchitis that leads to hydration of mouth and eases breathing so is recommended for respiratory problems. It is used as a mouthwash or gargle to aid sore throat and mouth inflammation.


Digestive health


The extract of daisy flower possesses diuretic, digestive, purgative and laxative properties. As it stimulates digestion system, it is effective for treating digestive tracts such as diarrhea, mild constipation, liver, gastritis and gallbladder complaints. The extract also contains antispasmodic properties which is effective as an aid for digestive cramps.


Treat wounds


Daisy flower extract is helpful in healing sores, fresh wounds and scratches. Apply daisy on the top of wounds directly. It contains antibacterial agents so is extracted into liquid poultice and used on battle field and operations for treating wounded soldiers. In ancient Rome, slaves of surgeons who followed Roman legions into battlefield pick sacks full of daisies to extract juice. Bandages were soaked in it and applied to bind sword and spear cuts. Daisies were used during middle ages for treating sprains, bruises and swellings of joints.


Useful for heavy menstruation


Extract of flower is useful for those women experiencing heavy menstruation and pregnancy. It is beneficial for treating uterus problems leaded by bleeding and debility. It is helpful to lower uterine pain after childbirth and during pregnancy and also when bruises in abdomen are severe.


Lower fever


Daisy flower extract has diuretic effect which promotes sweating and contributes in lowering fever. It is used as a compress on forehead and as an infusion in cup of tea.


Rheumatic pain


The ointment of daisy is an aid for inflamed joints as well as wounds. The tincture provides relief from rheumatism and muscle fatigue.


Detoxification


The extract of daisy when drunk as juice is used for eliminating harmful toxins and harmful substances from the body. It acts as blood purifier which cleanses bloodstream.


Uses

  • Traditionally it is used for wounds and to treat delicate and listless children.

  • In folk medicine, it is used for rheumatism.

  • In Trabzon and Turkey, it is used to provide relief from stomach ache.

  • Dried flowering heads are used in decoctions, infusions, poultice and ointments in treating rheumatism, catarrh, liver, arthritis and kidney disorders.

  • Leaves are applied externally to bruises, wounds and cuts.

  • Use the extract internally for treating inflammatory disorders of liver.

  • Chew the leaves to cure oral ulcers.

  • Root decoction is used for treating eczema, scorbutic complaints.

  • Flowers are used for treating disorders of respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract.

  • It is also used as a cure for fresh wounds.

  • Use the distilled water internally for treating liver inflammatory disorders.

  • The mild decoction eases respiratory tract complaints, painful menstruation and rheumatic pains.

  • In Rome, juice extracted from daisies is used to heal wounds.

  • In folk medicine, daisy is used to provide relief from cough, slow bleeding and improve digestion.

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