Corn Or Maize

Corn or Maize is scientifically known as Zea mays, an economically significant grass species. Maize, also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. It originated in America and has long been cultivated by the American Indians. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that when fertilized yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits.



It was grown by the people of ancient civilizations of the Incas and Aztecs and is still the staple food of many Latin American people. Afterwards it was introduced in Europe, Africa and Asia and is now grown in wide range of climatic conditions in many countries. It is considered as a source of staple food in many countries. Some of the biggest food industries in the world are dependent on fresh corns, baby corns, maize grains, corn flakes, corn flour, popcorns, corn starch, etc.



Table of Contents


Height(Avg)

6 - 10 feet


Width-Circumference (Avg)

1 - 2 feet


Approximate pH

5.5 - 7.5


Growth Nutrition of Corn


The most vital nutrients for corn are nitrogen and phosphorous, but corn also uses potassium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, boron and other trace elements in small quantities. In most cases, the soil naturally supplies the corn with most of the elements it needs, except for nitrogen and phosphorous.


Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) are essential plant nutrients for corn production. They are called secondary macronutrients because plants require them in smaller amounts than primary macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium).


Types of Corn


1. Dent corn (Zea mays var identata sturt):- This is the most common type grown in SA. Dent formation on the top of the kernel having yellow or white colour. The depression or dent in the corn of the seed is the result of rapid drying and shrinkage. Of the soft starch.


2. Flint corn (Zea mays var indurate sturt):- It is widely grown and cultivated in India. Endosperm of kernel is soft and starchy in the centre and completely enclosed by a very hard outer layer. The kernel is rounded on the top. The colour may be white or yellow. Grown in Europe, Asia, central America and South America. Flint corn is widely grown in India.

3. Popcorn (Zea mays var verta sturt):- It possess exceptional qualities. Size of kernels is small but the endosperm is hard. When they are heated, the pressure build up within the kernel suddenly results in an explosion and the grain is turn out. Grains are used for human consumption and is the basis of popcorn confectionery. Its cultivation is mainly confined to new world.


4. Flour corn (Zea mays var anylacea sturt):- It possess a soft endosperm. Kernels are soft and though all coloured corns are grown but white & blue are the most common. They are like fruit kernels in shape. Grown in USA & S. Africa.

5. Sweet corn (Zea mays var saceharata sturt):- The sugar and starch makes the major component of the endosperm that results in sweetish taste of the kernels before they attain the maturity and after maturity, the kernels become wrinkled. The cobs are picked up green for canning and table purpose. Mainly grown in North half of the USA.


6. Pod corn (Zea mays var tunicate kulesh):- Each kernel is enclosed in pod. It is a primitive type of corn and hence of no importance.

7. Waxy corn (Zea mays var ceratina kulesh):- The endosperm of the kernel when cut or broken gives a waxy appearance. It produces the starch similar to tapioca starch for making adhesive for articles.



Planting Corn


Plant in full sun (at least 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight). Corn plants are picky about their soil. It should be well-draining yet consistently moist, as corn tends to suck up a lot of water. Ideally, aged manure or compost should be worked into the soil in the fall. If that’s not possible to do, simply mix in aged compost prior to planting.


When to Plant Corn

  • Starting corn indoors is not generally recommended. It’s best to start them directly in the garden so that their sensitive roots aren’t disturbed when transplanting.

  • Corn is very sensitive to frost; do not plant soil temperature is at least 60°F (16°C), or 65°F (18°C) for super-sweet varieties. Usually, this is 2 or 3 weeks after the last frost in spring. It’s vital to plant early, since corn requires a long growing period of frost-free weather.

  • If you live in an area with a shorter growing season, choose an early variety that will mature well before the first fall frost

  • Also, in colder zones, the ground can be warmed by a black plastic cover; sow seeds through holes in the plastic.

  • A couple of weeks after planting your first round of corn, plant another round in order to extend the harvest.


How to Plant Corn

  • To speed germination, moisten seeds, wrap in moist paper towels, and store in a plastic bag for 24 hours.

  • Sow seeds about 1½ to 2 inches deep and 2 to 4 inches apart in short, side-by-side rows to form a block, rather than one long row.

  • For decent pollination, we recommend a modest block of, say, 10 to 50 plants.

  • You may choose to fertilize at planting time with a 10-10-10 fertilizer; corn is meant to grow rapidly. If you are confident that the soil is adequate, this step can be skipped.

  • Water well at planting time.


Growing Corn

  • When the young corn plants are about 4 inches tall, thin them so that they are 12 to 18 inches apart for short varieties and 18 to 24 inches apart for tall varieties.

  • Be careful not to damage corns’ roots when weeding around the plants.

  • Keep corn well watered, as it has shallow roots and can become stressed by drought. About 2 inches of water per week is sufficient; water more if conditions are especially hot or if your soil is sandy. If the soil remains dry, soak the soil again.

  • Side-dress plants with a high-nitrogen fertilizer when corn is 8 inches tall. Repeat when it is knee high (18 inches).

  • Mulch helps to reduce evaporation around the plants.

  • To keep stalks standing straight during high winds, mound soil around the base of 12-inch-tall plants.

  • Wind pollination is critical to develop full cobs of kernels. To help this along, gently shake the the stalks of the plants every few days for as long as the tassels are viable to increase the chances of every silk being pollinated. Mornings are best.

Harvesting


Each maize stalk should produce 1 large ear of maize. Under ideal conditions, the stalk will produce a second, slightly smaller ear which reaches maturity slightly later than the first. Maize ears should be harvested at the “milk stage” of development, when the kernels within the husk are well packed and produce a milky substance when the kernel is punctured. Check ears for ripeness by gently peeling back a small portion of the husk. Be sure to check the ears frequently for ripeness and harvest as required as ears can quickly become over-ripe and lose their sweetness. Remove the ears from the stalk by pulling quickly downward while twisting and then refrigerate until consumption.


Physiological Diseases


Nitrogen deficiency The typical symptom of nitrogen deficiency is the plant turns pale green; a ‘V’ shaped yellow coloration on leaves. This pattern starts from leaf end to leaf collar. The symptom begin from lower to upper leaves.


Phosphorous deficiency The deficient plants are dark green and lower leaves show reddish-purple discoloration.


Potassium deficiency The leaf margins turn yellow and brown which appears like firing or drying. The symptoms progress from lower leaves to upper leaves.


Sulfur deficiency Symptom appears on younger leaves where we will see yellow color striping(interveinal chlorosis).


Zinc deficiency Upper leaves shows broad bands of yellow coloration and later turn pale brown or gray necrosis(dead-spots). The symptom first appears in the middle of leaves and progress outward.


Pests and Plant Diseases


Pests


1. Aphids (Corn leaf aphid, Peach Aphid)


Symptoms: Heavy infestations can result in curled leaves and stunted plants; honeydew secretions promote growth of sooty mold; corn leaf aphids are blue-green in color, peach aphids are green-yellow in color; aphids may transmit viruses when feeding.


Comments: Grassy weeds also serve as hosts for corn-leaf aphids; peach aphids have a wide host range.


Management: It is rare for aphids to reach levels that are damaging to the plant and no control is generally warranted as insecticide sprays will not prevent transmission of viruses.


2. Corn earworm


Symptoms: Feeding damage to leaves, tassel and leaf whorls; preferred feeding site is the ear and insect produces extensive excrement at the tip of the ear; younger larvae feed on silks, severing them from the plant; young caterpillars are cream-white in color with a black head and black hairs; older larvae may be yellow-green to almost black in color with fine white lines along their body and black spots at the base of hairs; eggs are laid singly on both upper and lower leaf surfaces and are initially creamy white but develop a brown-red ring after 24 hours and darken prior to hatching.


Comments: Adult insect is a pale green to tan, medium sized moth; can be a very damaging pests ofcorn; insect overwinters as pupae in the soil.


Management: Corn earworms are most problematic on sweet corn varieties and treatment should be applied at egg hatch; monitor plants for eggs and young larvae and also natural enemies that could be damaged by chemicals; Bacillus thuringiensis or Entrust SC may be applied to control insects on organically grown plants; appropriate chemical treatment may be required for control in commercial plantations.


3. Cutworms (Black cutworm, Variegated cutworm)


Symptoms: Stems of young transplants or seedlings may be severed at soil line; if infection occurs later, irregular holes are eaten into the surface of fruits; larvae causing the damage are usually active at night and hide during the day in the soil at the base of the plants or in plant debris of toppled plant; larvae are 2.5–5.0 cm (1–2 in) in length; larvae may exhibit a variety of patterns and coloration but will usually curl up into a C-shape when disturbed.


Comments: Cutworms have a wide host range and attack vegetables including asparagus, bean, cabbage and other crucifers, carrot, celery, corn, lettuce, pea, pepper, potato and tomato.


Management: Remove all plant residue from soil after harvest or at least two weeks before planting, this is especially important if the previous crop was another host such as alfalfa, beans or a leguminous cover crop; plastic or foil collars fitted around plant stems to cover the bottom 3 inches above the soil line and extending a couple of inches into the soil can prevent larvae severing plants; hand-pick larvae after dark; spread diatomaceous earth around the base of the plants (this creates a sharp barrier that will cut the insects if they try and crawl over it); apply appropriate insecticides to infested areas of garden or field if not growing organically.


4. Fall armyworm


Symptoms: Singular, or closely grouped circular to irregularly shaped holes in foliage; heavy feeding by young larvae leads to skeletonized leaves; shallow, dry wounds on fruit; egg clusters of 50-150 eggs may be present on the leaves; egg clusters are covered in a whitish scale which gives the cluster a cottony or fuzzy appearance; young larvae are pale green to yellow in color while older larvae are generally darker green with a dark and light line running along the side of their body and a pink or yellow underside. 1. Leaf damage is usually characterized by ragged feeding, and moist sawdust-like frass near the funnels and upper leaves of the plant. 2. Leaf damage is usually scattered in rows across the leaf 3. Younger larvae usually eat tissue from one side, leaving the other side in tact. This is what creates windows in the leaf 4. Deep feeding may may destroy maize tassels. 5. Caterpillars enter through the side of the ear and feed on developing kernels


Comments: Insect can go through 3–5 generations a year.


Management: Organic methods of controlling the armyworm include biological control by natural enemies which parasitize the larvae and the application of Bacillus thuringiensis; there are chemicals available for commercial control but many that are available for the home garden do not provide adequate control of the larvae.


5. Flea beetles


Symptoms: Small holes or pits in leaves that give the foliage a characteristic “shothole” appearance; young plants and seedlings are particularly susceptible; plant growth may be reduced; if damage is severe the plant may be killed; the pest responsible for the damage is a small (1.5–3.0 mm) dark colored beetle which jumps when disturbed; the beetles are often shiny in appearance.


Comments: Flea beetles may overwinter on nearby weed species, in plant debris or in the soil; insects may go through a second or third generation in one year.


Management: In areas where flea beetles are a problem, floating row covers may have to be used prior to the emergence of the beetles to provide a physical barrier to protect young plants; plant seeds early to allow establishment before the beetles become a problem - mature plants are less susceptible to damage; trap crops may provide a measure of control - cruciferous plants are best; application of a thick layer of mulch may help prevent beetles reaching surface; application on diamotecoeus earth or oils such as neem oil are effective control methods for organic growers; application of insecticides containing carbaryl, spinosad, bifenthrin and permethrin can provide adequate control of beetles for up to a week but will need reapplied.


6. Thrips


Symptoms: If population is high leaves and may be distorted and curl upwards; edges of leaves may dry up and are speckled with black feces; insects are small (1.5 mm) and slender and best viewed using a hand lens; adult thrips are pale yellow to light brown and the nymphs are smaller and lighter in color.


Comments: May be found on corn at any time during the growing season.


Management: Avoid planting next to onions, garlic where very large numbers of thrips can build up; use reflective mulches early in growing season to deter thrips; apply appropriate insecticide if thrips become problematic; young plants will recover from damage and treatment is not often necessary as the thrips are beneficial for controlling mites.


Diseases


1. Anthracnose


Symptoms: Anthracnose symptoms vary widely depending on numerous factors such as genotype, age of plant and environmental conditions.

  • - Small oval or elongated water-soaked spots which enlarge up to 15 mm long appear on leaves

  • - Lesions develop a tan center and red-brown or orange border

  • - Lesions may coalesce to form large necrotic(dead) patches

  • - Severely infected leaves on susceptible hybrids may wither and die

  • - Fungal fruiting bodies develop on dead tissues and may produce pink or orange spore masses

  • - Top dieback and stalk rot

Comments: Fungus survives the winter on crop debris. Emergence of disease is favored by high temperatures and extended periods of wet and cloudy weather - seedlings and mature plants are most susceptible to the disease.


Management: Plant hybrids resistant to anthracnose; rotating crops and plowing crop debris into soil may help reduce incidence of early season infections.


2. Cercospora leaf spot (Gray leaf spot)


Symptoms: Small necrotic spots with chlorotic halos on leaves which expand to rectangular lesions 1-6 cm in length and 2-4 mm wide; as the lesions mature they turn tan in color and finally gray; lesions have sharp, parallel edges and are opaque; disease can develop quickly causing complete blighting of leaves and plant death. 1. Brown Spots with yellow rings throughout the leaf during the growing period of the Cassava 2. Lesions that are 0.15-0.2 cm in diameter 3. Serious cases can lead to holes throughout the lesions on the leaf


Comments: Disease emergence is favored in areas where a corn crop is followed by more corn with no rotastion; severity and incidence of disease is likely die to continuous corn culture with minimum tillage and the use of susceptible hybrids in in the midwestern corn belt of the USA; prolonged periods of foggy or cloudy weather can cause severe Cercopora epidemics.


Management: Plant corn hybrids with resistance to the disease; crop rotation and plowing debris into soil may reduce levels of inoculum in the soil but may not provide control in areas where the disease is prevalent; foliar fungicides may be economically viable for some high yeilding susceptible hybrids.


3. Charcoal rot


Symptoms: Symptoms are usually first apparent at the tasseling stage; plant stalks become shredded and pith is completely rotted with stringy strands of vascular tissue left intact; small, black fungal fruiting bodies are visible in the vascular strands and give the tissue a gray coloration; fungus grows into internodes of the stalk causing the plant to ripen early and causing the stalk to weaken; plant may break.


Comments: Emergence of the disease is favored by warm soils with a low moisture content; fungus overwinters in the soil and can also survive on other host plants which include sorghum and soybean.


Management: There are currently no available fungicides to treat the disease; avoid stressing plants by practicing good water management; rotating crops with small grains may help reduce disease incidence.


4. Common rust


Symptoms: Oval or elongated cinnamon brown pustules on upper and lower surfaces of leaves; pustules rupture and release powdery red spores; pustules turn dark brown-black as they mature and release dark brown powdery spores; if infection is severe, pustules may appear on tassels and ears and leaves may begin to yellow; in partially resistant corn hybrids, symptoms appear as chlorotic or necrotic flecks on the leaves which release little or no spore.


Comments: Disease is spread by wind-borne spores; some of the most popularly grown sweet corn varieties have little or no resistance to the disease.


Management: The most effective method of controlling the disease is to plant resistant hybrids; application of appropriate fungicides may provide some degree on control and reduce disease severity; fungicides are most effective when the amount of secondary inoculum is still low, generally when plants only have a few rust pustules per leaf.


5. Common smut (Boil smut, Blister smut)


Symptoms: Tumor-like galls on plant tissues which are initially green-white or silvery white in color; interior of galls darken and turn into masses of powdery dark brown or black spores (with the exception of galls on leaves which remain greenish in color); galls may reach up to 15 cm in diameter and are common on ears, tassels, shoots or midrib of leaves; galls on leaves remain small and do not burst open.


Comments: Fungus overwinters on crop debris or in the soil and can survive for several years; fungus usually enters the plant through wounds; application of nitrogen fertilizer increases incidence of disease, while application of phosphorous fertilizer decreases infection.


Management: Although many practices may be recommended for the control of common smut, the only method that is completely effective is to grow resistant corn hybrids.


6. Downy Mildew disease


Symptoms: Symptoms of all maize downy mildew pathogens are similar although may vary depends on cultivar, age and climate. The disease appear as early from two weeks after sowing resulting in chlorosis and stunting. In older plants the leaves shows mottling, chlorotic streaking and lesions and white striped leaves. Usually the leaves are narrower and more erect when compare to healthy plants and are covered with a white, downy growth on both surfaces.


Comments: The disease is both air and seed born. The pathogen have several alternative hosts.


Management: Grow available resistant varieties and hybrids. Follow crop rotation with non host crops. Use suitable systemic fungicide for both seed treatment and foliar spray. Keep the fields free from weeds. Drying seeds before sowing reduces the disease incidence.


7. Giberrella stalk and ear rot


Symptoms: Plants wilting and leaves changing color from light to dull green; lower stalk turns straw yellow; internal stalk tissue breaks down; interior of stalk has a red discoloration; black fungal fruiting bodies may be visible on the stalk, often at internodes, and can be easily scraped off; if fungal infection affects the ears, it produces a red mold at the tips of the ear which spreads down; early infection may result in the ear being covered in pink mycelium which causes the corn husk to adhere to the ear.


Comments: Fungus can enter through wounds to stalk or ear; ear rot is caused by the fungus infecting silks and moving down through the ear; fungus survives on corn debris in soil and on debris of other host plants such as wheat.


Management: Stressed plants are more susceptible to Gibberella - providing adequate fertilization and irrigation can help reduce incidence of disease; control insects, especially stem and ear borers; hybrids differ in their susceptibility to the disease and further information is required in order to develop specific control measures.


8. Northern Leaf Blight


Symptoms: In the beginning we will notice elliptical gray-green lesions on leaves. As the disease process this lesions become pale gray to tan color. Later stage the lesions looks dirty due to dark gray spores particularly under lower leaf surface. The disease can be easily identified in the field due to its long, narrow lesions which are unrestricted by veins.


Comments: The disease mainly spread through rain splash and wind.


Management: Follow proper tillage to reduce fungus inoculum from crop debris. Follow crop rotation with non host crop. Grow available resistant varieties. In severe case of disease incidence apply suitable fungicide.


9. Southern corn leaf blight


Symptoms: Foliar symptoms vary with hybrid and different fungal isolate; lesions on leaves may be tan and elongated and run between leaf veins; lesions may have a buff or brown colored margin; another race of the fungus causes tan, spindle shaped or elliptical lesions with a water-soaked margin that turns into a yellow halo.


Comments: Fungus overwinters in corn debris in soil; disease occurs worldwide but is emergence favors areas with a warm, damp climate.


Management: The most effective method of controlling the disease is to plant resistant hybrids; cultural control methods include plowing crop debris into soil after harvest and rotating crops.


10. Bacterial leaf blight/stripe


Symptoms: Water-soaked linear lesions on leaves as they emerge; lesions turn brown and may subsequently turn gray or white; lesions may have a red border; after the leaves are mature, lesions do not tend to extend any further; no new lesions tend to appear after tasseling; if corn variety is susceptible, mature leaves may shred after maturity.


Comments: Bacteria can also cause disease in oats, barley, wheat, some millets and sorghum.


Management: Resistant hybrids should be planted in areas where the disease is prevalent; plowing crop debris into soil and rotating crop may not be effective at controlling the disease due to its extensive host range.


11. Bacterial Leaf Streak disease


Symptoms: The infected leaves initially shows narrow stripes between the veins. The initial symptoms are generally confused with gray leaf spot disease. But the lesions from bacteria appear brown, orange, and/or yellow when you infected leaves are back-lit. Also in Bacterial Leaf Streak disease the lesions show slightly wavy edges when compared to the smooth, linear lesion margins of gray leaf spot.


Comments: The bacteria causes gumming disease on sugarcane in several part of the world. First reported on corn in South Africa. Currently this disease is reported in Nebraska (Aug. 26, 2016), Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas on corn.


Management: Use healthy and disease free seeds. Remove the infected plant debris and burn them. Follow crop rotation.


12. Goss's bacterial blight


Symptoms: Gray or yellow stripes with irregular margins on leaf surfaces; stripes follow leaf veins and contain characteristic dark green to black water-soaked spots; if infection occurs early then plant may become wilted or withered; it is common to find a crystalline residue on leaves caused by dried bacterial exudate.


Comments: Disease overwinters in diseased crop debris on, or close to, the soil surface; temperatures below 12°C (53.6°F) and above 40°C (104°F) bacterium grows more slowly and may even be killed off.


Management: Plant resistant sweetcorn hybrids; rotate crop; plow crop debris into soil immediately after harvest.


Benefits of Corn


1. It prevents haemorrhoids

Corn has 18.4% of the daily recommended dosage of fiber, which means that it is good for your bowel movements. It can help you with various digestive problems like constipation and haemorrhoids, and can also protect you from getting colon cancer. Fiber is good for your bowel movements because it bulks up your stool and facilitates its movement down the digestive tract. As a result, it is also good for diarrhoea and irritable bowel syndrome. 2. It promotes growth

Corn has high amounts of vitamin B constituents, thiamine and niacin, which is good for facilitating growth. Thiamine helps your body improve nerve health and cognitive functions while niacin can prevent a series of problems like dementia and dermatitis. Corn is also known for having high amounts of folic acid and is therefore good for pregnant women. Since corn is rich in Vitamin E, which is a natural source of antioxidants, it protects the body from various illnesses, helping you grow without the hindrance of disease. 3. It helps you gain weight

Corn contains a high amount of calories. As a result, it is used to gain weight quickly. This grain can be used in agricultural nations as it can grow in almost any type of conditions. 4. It provides minerals

Corn is loaded with all the essential minerals that your body needs. It has high amounts of copper, iron, zinc, phosphorous, manganese, magnesium, and even selenium, which is not very easy to find in other foods. Phosphorus helps with a number of body functions and can be used to regulate kidney function, induce normal bone growth, and maintain bone health. Magnesium can help you maintain a healthy heart rate and also boosts the bone density. 5. It prevents cancer

Corn is also known for preventing cancer. It is a good source of antioxidants. Antioxidants are extremely important as they get rid of the free radicals in your system. The buildup of free radicals is what often leads to cancer. Furthermore, corn is also known for the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, and leaving the health cells unaffected. It also contains phytochemicals, which are also a good source of antioxidants. 6. It protects your heart

Corn has an optimal combination of fatty acids in it, which is why it lets the Omega 3 fatty acids get rid of bad cholesterol and replace them at the binding sites. As a result, you end up reducing your risk of developing cardiovascular disease by a huge margin. It prevents your arteries from getting clogged and even controls your blood pressure as a result. It lowers your chances of getting heart attacks and strokes. You can cook your food in corn oil to gain these benefits of corn. 7. It prevents anemia

Corn is extremely rich in Iron. Iron helps your body form new blood cells, which is important when it comes to preventing anemia. It can also help you avoid the symptoms of anemia such as exhaustion, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and shortness of breath. 8. It’s good for the eyes and skin

Eating yellow corn can provide your body with a ton of beta-carotene, which is what produces vitamin A in your body. This is extremely good for your eyesight and your skin in general. Beta-carotene also has high amounts of antioxidants that can prevent cancers and heart disease. Since vitamin A can be toxic if ingested in high amounts, its best to get your vitamin A through the beta-carotenes in your body. 9. It controls diabetes

Diabetes is a deadly disease that cannot be cured, only controlled. This is why keeping an eye on your diet can be extremely important if you have diabetes. Corn contains a healthy amount of phytochemicals. Due to this, you can regulate the insulin present in your blood. This can help you control the rise and drop of sugar in your body, and therefore control your diabetes as well. 10. It has cosmetic uses

Apart from medicinal benefits, corn also provides a whole range of cosmetic benefits. It can be applied topically to soothe skin irritations, rashes, and skin diseases. It is better to use corn as opposed to products from the market as they normally contain petroleum jelly. Petroleum jelly can block your pores and prevent your skin from breathing. This can make your skin look dull and clogged.


11. Ensures Healthy Pregnancy


Consuming measured portions of corn has massive benefits for the health of pregnant and lactating women. Due to the immense iron and calcium content in corn, it is ideal to stimulate milk production and balance hormonal activities in expecting women and young mothers.


Uses


The main use of corn is the animal feed and nearly 75 to 90 per cent corn is used for feeding animals. In USA 40 per cent corn is used to feed hogs or pigs, 25 per cent to feed cattle, 15 per cent for poultry and 10 per cent for horses and sheep.


Another use of corn is as human food. In many parts of the world especially in Latin America, Africa, Southern Europe and some Asian countries, maize is consumed as food grain.


The third use of maize is in making industrial products. Maize is used for making indus­trial alcohol. Maize is also used for making vegetable oil and starch is also obtained from it. On the other hand maize stalks are used in making rayon, plastics, paper and wall-boards. Based on the chemical properties the processed cobs find their use in the manufacture of furfurol, fermentable sugars, solvents, liquid fuels, charcoal gas and other chemicals by destructive distillation, and also in the manufacture of pulp, paper and hard boards.

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