Apricot fruit tree of the rose family (Rosaceae), cultivated throughout the temperate regions of the world, especially in the Mediterranean. Apricots are closely related to peaches, almonds, plums, and cherries (see alsoPrunus). The botanical name of apricot is Prunus armeniaca.The apricot was originally domesticated in China but is now cultivated on every continent except Antarctica.
The apricot tree is has an erect growth habit and a spreading canopy. The leaves of the tree are ovate with a rounded base, pointed tip and serrated margin. The tree produces white to pink flowers, singly or in pairs, and a fleshy yellow to orange fruit. The apricot fruit is a drupe with skin that can be smooth or covered in tiny hairs depending on the variety and a single seed enclosed within a protective outer shell (stone).
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20 - 30 feet
15 - 25 feet
between 6.5 and 8.0
Growth Nutrition of Apricot
In general, apricot trees thrive when macronutrients like Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), and Potassium (K) are present. Nitrogen helps encourage vegetative growth (leaves and branches). Phosphorus encourages root and blossom development.
Varieties of Apricot Tree
‘Bergarouge’ – Red colored, sweet and juicy large apricot, harvested from mid-July onwards.
‘Bergeron’ – Yellow colored, juicy and harvested in August. This variety is very hardy.
‘Hargrand’ – Yellow colored, perfect for jams. Harvested mid-July.
‘Luizet’ – Cute, mottled apricot that is particularly juicy, harvested mid-July.
‘Muscat’ – Yellow colored, a heirloom variety that is particularly tasty, harvested from mid-July.
‘Orangered’ – Red colored, is one of the early varieties, first to be harvested. It is crisp.
‘Gros Peche de Nancy’ – Yellow colored, large musk-flavored fruits harvested end of July to beginning of August.
‘Pointu de roquevaire’ – Yellow colored, very fragrant and recognizable thanks to its distinctive pointed end. Harvest begins in July.
‘Polonais’ or ‘Polish’– Yellow colored, perfect for making your own jam, harvested from beginning of July.
‘Rosé de Provence’ – Red colored, very sweet and harvested from early July.
‘Rouge de Roussillon’ – Red colored, particularly fragrant and harvested from early July.
‘Tardif de Tain’ – Orange-yellow colored, late variety harvested end of August.
‘Blenheim’ – Rich, sweet, slightly tart fruit, this is semi-dwarf variety.
‘Plum Parfait’ – medium fruit; skin is red blushed over dark yellow; the flesh is dark yellow marbled red at the pit. This is a hybrid of Japanese plum and apricot. Early harvest.
‘Puget Gold’ – medium size apricot with good flavor low in acid. Use canned or dried. Mid- to late-season harvest.
‘Riland’ – nearly round, medium fruit is covered with fine velvety hairs; light yellow skin has deep red blush over half of the fruit; the flesh if firm and meaty. Ripens from the pit out. Midseason harvest.
‘Rival’ – large, oval orange apricot blushed red. Early harvest.
‘Royal Rosa’ – medium fruit with bright yellow skin; firm flesh has pleasant aroma; the flavor is a good balance between sugar and acid. Best for eating fresh. Midseason to late harvest.
‘Royalty’ – extra-large apricot. Early harvest.
‘Sungold’ – plum-size, bright orange apricot with a sweet, mild flavor. Use fresh, canned, or as jam. Early to midseason harvest.
‘Sun-Glow’ – very colorful fruit. Midseason harvest.
‘Tilton’ – large to very large apricot with orange skin yellow-orange flesh; fair flavor. Use fresh. Midseason harvest.
‘Tomcot’ – Tlarge, sweet fruit with sweet orange flesh. Early harvest.
‘Wenatchee Moorpark’ – Large to oval apricot with orange-yellow flesh and skin; fair texture. Excellent flavor. Midseason harvest.
‘Chinese (Mormon)’ – small, orange-skinned fruit with red blush. Smooth, firm flesh is sweet and juicy. Midseason to late harvest.
‘Earligold’ – medium-sized fruit is golden yellow with a rich and juicy flesh. Use for canning and for eating fresh. Early harvest.
‘Floragold’ – small to medium size apricot with yellow skin and flesh. Mid-season harvest.
‘Garden Annie’ – medium to large fruit with a bright yellow skin; the clingstone flesh is juicy and firm. Early harvest.
‘Gold Kist’ – medium to large apricot with red-blushed yellow skin. Excellent sweet-tart flavor. Use for canning, freezing, drying and for eating fresh. Early harvest.
Planting Apricot Trees
Best Climate to Grow an Apricot Tree
Apricots grow best in Zones 5 to 9. Select a cultivar that grows well in your area. Contact the nearby Cooperative Extension Service for recommendations.
Apricots need a climate where winter is cold enough to provide a period of dormancy. They need 600 to 900 chill hours (32 to 45°F) each year, fewer chill hours than a peach, but they will not survive temperatures below 0° Conversely, they are not well adapted to summer heat much above 100°F.
Best Place to Plant an Apricot Tree
Apricots are the first fruit trees to bloom early in spring; planting apricots where frost comes late in spring is risky. Frost will kill flower buds and blossoms.
In regions with a late spring, plant apricots on the north side of a building so they remain dormant longer and bloom later.
In cool summer regions, fan train apricots against a south or southwest fence or wall or grow them in containers in a greenhouse or sunroom.
Plant apricots in full sun. They can grow in partial shade, but the yield will be less than if grown in full sun.
Plant apricots in well-drained loamy soil. Apricots do not like wet roots.
Apricots grow best in neutral or slightly alkaline soil with a soil pH range of 6.7 to 7.5.
Avoid planting apricots where there is a prevailing breeze or in low spots that can collect frost.
How to Plant an Apricot Tree
Apricots can be purchased bare-root, baled-and-burlapped, or container-grown.
Plant bare-root trees in early spring as soon as the soil can be worked and while the trees are still dormant. Plant balled-and-burlapped or container-grown trees in spring or early summer before hot, dry weather comes, or wait and plant later in fall.
Prepare a planting site in full sun that is sheltered from a prevailing breeze or wind.
Work well-rotted compost or manure into the soil and add a cupful of all-purpose fertilizer to the bottom of the hole.
Dig a hole half again as deep and twice as wide as the tree’s roots.
Put a tree stake (or support wires for a fan) in place before planting. Drive the stake into the ground to the side of the hole to at least 2 feet deep.
Set the tree in the hole so that the soil mark on the stem is at the surface level of the surrounding soil. (Remove all twine and burlap from balled and burlapped trees.) Spread the roots out in all directions.
Re-fill the hole with half native soil and half aged compost or commercial organic planting mix; firm in the soil so that there are no air pockets among the roots. Water in the soil and create a modest soil basin around the trunk to hold water at watering time.
Secure the tree to the stake with tree ties.
After planting, water each tree thoroughly and fertilize with a high-phosphorus liquid starter fertilizer.
Spacing Apricot Trees
A standard full-size apricot can grow from 20 to 30 feet tall. Space standard varieties 20 to 25 feet apart.
Dwarf apricots can from 12 to 15 feet tall; space dwarf trees 12 to 15 feet apart.
Apricot Tree Pollination
Most apricots are self-fertile and will produce fruit if planted alone. ‘Riland’ and ‘Perfection’ are the only varieties that are not self-fruitful; they require another apricot within 300 feet.
Planting two cultivars near one another allowing for cross-pollination will increase the yield of each tree.
Apricot Tree Yield
A full-size apricot can produce 150 to 200 pounds of fruit per year.
A dwarf variety will produce 50 to 100 pounds of fruit per year.
Container Growing an Apricot Tree
Dwarf apricot trees can be grown in containers.
Choose a large pot or tub at least 18 inches wide and deep that is well-drained.
Plant trees in a commercial organic potting mix.
Keep the soil evenly moist but not wet.
Feed apricots growing in containers with an all-purpose fertilizer that is slightly higher in potassium. Apply a liquid fertilizer in spring and summer.
Top-dress plants in containers once a year with fresh potting soil.
Repot the tree after two years into a container that is 24 inches wide and deep.
Protect apricots in containers from frost by covering them with a heavy row cover or move them indoors.
Apricot Tree Care
The first summer after planting, water apricot trees weekly. Once the tree is established it will need only infrequent watering. Keep the soil evenly moist during the time fruits are swelling so that they reach full size.
Test irrigation water to make sure it is not high in salt, boron, or chlorine.
Feed trees in early spring; spread several inches of aged compost or aged manure around each tree out to the dripline. Also, in spring, feed trees with an all-purpose (10-10-10) fertilizer before fruit sets.
If tree growth is slow test the soil for nutrient deficiencies. If growth is vigorous and overly lush; plant a cover crop around trees to use up some of the extra soil nitrogen.
Apricots flower early in spring; commonly before peaches and nectarines. Buds and flowers must be protected from frost. Place a floating row cover over plants when frost is predicted. Remove the cover during the day.
Fall and Winter Apricot Tree Care
Prune in summer or complete pruning in fall before the dormant period begins.
Pruning, Thinning and Propagating Apricot Trees
Pruning an Apricot Trees
Apricots bear fruit both on shoots and stems that grew last year and on clusters or older fruiting spurs.
Thin out old lateral stems and branches and sub-laterals that no longer bear fruit. This will give fruit-bearing young branches and spurs plenty of sun and space for growth and fruiting.
Prune to remove all diseased, dead, and broken branches. Remove fast-growing vertical branches called watersprouts. Remove shoots that grow from the root below the soil, called suckers. Remove crossing and rubbing branches that can injure each other. Remove V-branching branches, called crotches; narrow crotch branches cannot support the weight of fruit.
Do not prune more than one-third of the total tree each year.
Prune to just above a growth bud or flush to a main branch or trunk.
Prune in dry summer weather when diseases are dormant. Apricots are more susceptible to bacterial canker when pruned in winter; disease can enter the plant through pruning cuts.
Thinning Apricot Trees
Thin apricots when fruits are marble size. Thin fruits to leave 2 to 3 inches between fruits.
Trees that are not thinned and set excessive fruit may set little or no fruit the following year.
Propagating Apricot Trees
Apricots are propagated by bud grafting. The fruiting portion of the tree is grafted to a root system suitable for regional growth.
Harvesting and Storing Apricots
Apricots begin to fruit two to four years after planting.
The apricot harvest occurs mid to late summer.
A single tree will ripen its fruit over a period of about three weeks.
To determine if the fruit is ready for picking, cup fruit in your hand and give it a gentle twist; if it pulls away easily leaving the stalk behind it is ripe. A ripe apricot will be slightly soft and sweet tasting.
Let apricots ripen on the tree as long as possible.
Fruit can be refrigerated for one to two weeks.
Apricots can be frozen, canned, or dried. To freeze the fruit first remove the stone. Pick apricots firm-ripe if you plan to can or freeze the fruit.
Seeds of apricot variety ‘Sweetheart’ can be eaten like almonds; the seed of most cultivars is not edible.
Pests and Diseases
Birds will eat buds in winter and ripening fruit in summer. Net trees to keep birds away. Small trees can be protected by a net cage.
Spider mites can cause leaves to become mottled and discolored; fine silk webbing will be seen on the undersides of leaves. Spray leaves with summer oil to smother mites.
Codling moth larva can chew small holes in leaves; the holes will be surrounded by black excrement. In late spring place pheromone traps to attract and trap male moths to prevent mating. Trap larvae in sticky tree bands.
Oriental fruit moth larvae burrow into the tips of shoots causing them to wilt; the larvae may tunnel into the fruit. Spray plants with summer oil to kill eggs and larvae.
Scale are elliptical, hard-shelled insects that feed on stems and branches. Spray with oil-based dormant spray in winter to smother the insects; spray with summer oil in summer.
Peachtree borer larvae tunnel through the inner bark disrupting the flow of water and nutrients. Probe the entry hole with a wire to kill the borer.
Bacterial leaf spot can cause dark spots or shot holes on leaves and early leaf drop. Collect and dispose of diseased leaves. The next spring spray swelling buds with lime-sulfur every 1 to 3 weeks in wet or humid weather.
Bacterial canker causes bark or stems to ooze orange resin or gum. Oozing gum may also indicate blunt injury to the wood. Prune away all infected wood and dispose of it in the trash.
Brown rot is a fungal disease that causes soft, brown, fuzzy mold patches on fruit; spray trees with lime-sulfur when buds begin to turn green in spring; during bloom spray trees with sulfur if the weather is humid, rainy, or above 70° Brown rot can also cause leaves and blossoms to turn brown.
Shothole is a fungal disease that causes small brown-red spots on leaves; the centers of the spots decay and fall out; remove and destroy infected disease. Spray with copper spray.
Dieback of young shoots and stems is caused by a fungal disease. The shoots wilt, turn brown and die. Cut off and destroy infected foliage and branches.
Benefits of Apricot
Apricot and Improved vision
Apricot is a rich source of fat-soluble Vitamin A (Retinol), improving the quality of vision. The evidence clearly shows that Apricot’s retinol and beta carotene has a significant role in treating eye-related disorders. It can be essential for age-related eye problems such as loss of vision over time.
Apricot a good source of dietary fiber
Both fresh and dried apricots are a rich source of fiber. Apricot can be considered an element in a regular diet that can help treat diabetes, CHD, weight gain, and different types of cancers. There are clinical studies available that show that Apricot’s dietary fibers can dissolve fatty acids of the body, which further help improve digestion.
Apricot and heart health
Apricot has a fair amount of potassium. And potassium plays a vital role in the proper functioning of the heart. It is recommended that to include Apricot in the regular diet of the patient suffering from heart-related problems. Apricot’s regular intake and potassium help maintain the electrolyte balance in the body, directly related to blood pressure regulation. It can further help in keeping a healthy heart and preventing heart attacks.
Apricot and skin problems
Apricot is rich in fat and water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin C. And eating such phytonutrient enriched apricots may benefit from maintaining healthy skin. The vitamins are essential for maintaining skin health. Naturally, Apricot contains a high amount of water, and therefore it keeps body cells hydrated and thereby soothes the skin.
Apricot and gut health
Due to the higher amount of soluble fiber content in apricots, they help improve gut health. Apricot’s soluble fibers can lead to stool bulking, which helps keep intestinal bacteria free for better functioning of the digestive system.
Apricot and bone health
The human body needs calcium needs is fulfilled from the food which we eat. And intake and absorption of calcium are directly related to bone health and its further growth. Apricots are fully loaded with minerals like calcium and potassium, which play a crucial role in bone development.
Apricot and hair growth
Apricot is composed of essential fatty acid, i.e. linoleic acid. Linoleic acid helps in keeping healthy and shiny hairs. The fatty acids in Apricot can also help provide proper nourishment, and it can soothe scalp skin which can further increase skin growth.
Apricot fruit seeds are used for extracting seed oil, and due to its fair amount of essential fatty acid, it is used for making topical formulation used for massage purpose.
The fruit and fruit juice are used as medicine.
Apricots can be consumed fresh or dried.
They may also be processed into jams and jellies, syrup or juice.
In manufacturing, apricot oil is used in cosmetics.
Used as decoction, apricots soothe inflammations and skin rashes.
Juice extracted from apricot tree leaves and diluted seems to be effective in treating dysentery.
Apricot tree leaves are an effective remedy against cough and sore throat.