A rose is a woody perennial flowering plant of the genus Rosa, in the family Rosaceae, or the flower it bears. There are over three hundred species and tens of thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Most species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers native to Europe, North America, and northwestern Africa.

Many roses are cultivated for their beautiful flowers, which range in colour from white through various tones of yellow and pink to dark crimson and maroon, and most have a delightful fragrance, which varies according to the variety and to climatic conditions. Roses have acquired cultural significance in many societies.

Table of Contents


1 - 20 feet (depending on type)

Width-Circumference (Avg)

1 - 15 feet (depending on type)

Approximate pH

6.0 - 6.5

Growth Nutrition of Roses

Nitrogen promotes healthy growth of leaves and stems, since a rose's ability to make flowers resides in its leaves, healthy foliage results in more flowers. phosphorous encourages root development, and potassium is a good all-around nutrient, increasing plant vigor and disease resistance. Besides the big three, roses also need calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, zinc, copper, manganese and iron.

Types and Their Varieties of Rose

Hybrid tea roses: This is the most popular class of roses, which feature large ornate blooms with 30 to 50 petals, budding off of long stems. There are many thousands of hybrid tea roses that have been bred, with new introductions constantly replacing outdated varieties.

  • 'Tahitian Sunset' (Rosa Hybrid Tea 'Tahitian Sunset'): 'Tahitian Sunset' is a hybrid tea rose with magnificent apricot-pink bi-colored flowers that are up to 6 inches across and bear a faint anise smell. It is a good disease-resistant hybrid, with semi-glossy, dark-green leaves and blooms repeatedly from spring to fall. It can grow 5 to 6 feet tall.

  • 'Elle' (Rosa Hybrid Tea 'Elle'): 'Elle' is a good choice for those seeking a happy medium between a shocking-pink rose and a pink rose with washed-out color. It is relatively compact for its class. This hybrid tea rose is ever-blooming with very large (4- to 5-inch) flowers with a strong fragrance. The rose will have a strong fragrance of citrus and spice when in full bloom. It can grow 3 to 5 feet tall.

Grandiflora roses: This class can be regarded as a subgroup of hybrid tea roses. This type of rose is often very tall, with blooms that appear in clusters rather than individually on the stems.

  • 'About Face' (Rosa Grandiflora 'About Face') : This orange grandiflora rose has bicolored petals with long stems and rich green leaves. This rose's lighter color of deep golden yellow is carried on the inside of the petals, with a darker bronzy orange-red backside. This is a good disease-resistant rose with a fragrance that is said to smell like fresh apples. Blooms can be as much as 5 inches across; the plant has a good rebloom pattern. It can grow 5 to 6 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Wild Blue Yonder' (Rosa Grandiflora 'Wild Blue Yonder'): 'Wild Blue Yonder' is a grandiflora rose that starts out as a mauve or reddish-purple (it is advertised as lavender) and ends up with a deeper color. It never morphs into a true blue rose. It is a repeat bloomer with medium-sized (2 to 3 inches across) flowers that appear in large clusters. The fragrance is quite strong, with a hint of citrus. It can grow 3 to 5 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

Floribunda roses: Next to hybrid teas and grandifloras, this is the next most popular class. Like grandifloras, a floribunda rose bears its flowers in large clusters; but this type blooms continuously, whereas hybrid teas and grandifloras tend to bloom in six- to seven-week cycles. Foribundas tend to be much easier to care for than hybrid tea and grandiflora roses.

  • 'Cherry Parfait' (Rosa floribunda 'Cherry Parfait'): 'Cherry Parfait' is a floribunda rose that has a two-tone petal color scheme with white petals edged with red (red is the dominant color from a distance). It has dark green leaves. This rose has a relatively bushy habit. The looms are 2 to 3 inches across. It can grow 3 to 4 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Easy Does It' (Rosa floribunda 'Easy Does It'): This medium-sized floribunda rose has large 4- to 5-inch blooms that blend orange, pink, and apricot hues. The flowers are double, ruffled petals, and they have a mildly fruity aroma. This plant has a bushy growth habit and is fairly disease-resistant. It can grow 3 to 5 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Julia Child' (Rosa Floribunda 'Julia Child'): This floribunda rose was personally chosen by the award-winning chef with coloration she described as "butter gold." It has very shiny leaves, with full flowers up to 3 1/2 inches across, smelling of sweet licorice. It is a disease-resistant shrub with full, bushy growth habit. The flowers appear in small clusters; the plant has a good rebloom pattern. It can grow 2 to 3 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Mardi Gras' (Rosa floribunda 'Mardi Gras'): The 'Mardi Gras' multicolor floribunda rose has a festive coloring that is a ​mix of orange and pink with a bit of yellow. The bloom begins as an apricot-orange bud that slowly spirals open to reveal a 2- to 3-inch bright pink and orange bloom with a yellow base. This disease-resistant rose has dark green leaves and a peppery fragrance. It has a bushy growth habit that can work well for hedges. It can grow 3 to 4 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Morden Fireglow' (Rosa floribunda 'Morden Fireglow'): This floribunda rose has blooms falling somewhere orange and reddish in color. It has double, cupped flowers and matte (non-glossy leaves). This rose has good cold hardiness and a mild fragrance. The deep green, glossy foliage makes for good cut flowers. It can grow 2 to 4 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Frankly Scarlet' (Rosa floribunda 'Frankly Scarlet'): 'Frankly Scarlet' belongs to the JP Ultimate Collection. It is a repeat bloomer with dark-green leaves. This is a fairly short floribunda rose bush with 2- to 3-inch flowers that have a pleasant, spicy fragrance. It can grow 2 to 3 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

Polyantha roses: Also known as baby roses, polyantha roses are best for edgings, hedges, and containers. This category is similar to floribunda, but the plants are shorter and the blooms smaller. They grow prolific blossoms from spring to fall (in winters too in frost-free climates) in pink, red, and white colors. Furthermore, polyantha roses are also low-maintenance and one of the best types of rose plants that can grow in small space. It can grow 1 to 3 feet. The some of the popular varieties are Bashful Rose, Doc Rose, Grumpy Rose, Happy Rose, Sneezy Rose, China Doll Rose, Fairy Rose.

Miniature rose and miniflora roses: A "miniature" rose is essentially a shorter, more compact form of hybrid tea or grandiflora rose with flowers that are equally compact, usually growing to no more than 15 to 30 inches.

A "miniflora" rose has flowers of intermediate size, smaller than a floribunda but larger than a miniature.

Shrub roses: Roses in the category are easily recognized by their sprawling growth habit. They can grow from 5 to 15 feet in all directions. They are notable for their cold hardiness and vigorous production of flower clusters. There are several subcategories within this group; an important one is the David Austin English Rose category, which includes varieties that resemble old garden roses, with recurrent blooming and pleasant fragrance.

  • 'Bonica' (Rosa 'Bonica): 'Bonica' is a shrub rose that bears light-pink flowers on a plant with the typical bushy growth habit. It flowers repeatedly from spring to fall, with fragrant blooms that are 2 to 3 inches across. This is a very dependable plant in cooler climates. It can grow 3 to 5 feet tall. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Teasing Georgia' (Rosa 'Teasing Georgia'): 'Teasing Georgia' is a David Austin shrub rose, advertised as yellow but which may end up looking more apricot in color. It is a repeat bloomer with small clusters of large, cupped flowers, 4 to 5 inches across. It has good resistance to disease and a strong fragrance. It can grow 4 to 5 feet and may grow taller in warm climates. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Falstaff' (Rosa 'Falstaff'): 'Falstaff' is a David Austin English shrub rose featuring large 4- to 5-inch dark crimson-red flowers that bloom continually. It is regarded as one of David Austin's best offerings. It has the typical strong fragrance of an English shrub rose, and a good rebloom cycle. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Rainbow Knockout' (Rosa 'Rainbow Knockout'): 'Rainbow Knock Out' is a shrub rose with the classic single flowers that are common to species shrub roses. Unlike many shrub roses, it has an excellent re-bloom cycle. The flowers, which appear in clusters, are coral in color, with yellow centers; the foliage is dark green and semi-glossy. 'Rainbow Knock Out' has the typical hardiness of species shrub roses—it is fully resistant to black spot, powdery mildew, and rust. This is a hybrid plant.

  • 'Pat Austin' (Rosa 'Pat Austin'): The copper-colored 'Pat Austin' rose is one of the David Austin recommended varieties. It is named after David Austin's wife. The double, cupped flowers, 4- to 5-inches across, have a tea-like scent. It can grow 4 to 5 feet. This is a hybrid plant.

Climber/rambler roses: This last category includes roses from any class that are characterized by long, arching canes that can be trained onto fences, trellises, arbors, and pergolas. They are not really a class unto themselves. Thus, you may see a grandiflora rose described as a climber. Climber or ramblers are not clinging, twining plants; they must be tied to their vertical supports in order to grow upward. Many climbers and ramblers are quite cold hardy when compared to hybrid roses. The some of the popular varieties are Fourth of July, Alchymist, May Queen, Eden, Dublin Bay, Rosa ‘Peace’, Kiftsgate, American pillar, Phyllis Bide, Wedding Day, Snow Goose, Malvern Hills.

Groundcover or Landscape Roses: Coming in orange, pink, scarlet, purple, and white colors and variety of floral patterns, these roses are ideal groundcovers and also become great plants for window boxes and hanging baskets. You can expect them to flower year-round in moderately warm climates. It can grow 1 to 3 feet in tall. The some of the popular varieties are Flower Carpet Coral, Flower Carpet Pink Supreme, Flower Carpet Scarlet.

Bourbon Roses: Bourbon roses are the perfect blend of beauty and fragrance. These roses, with leathery foliage, flower from spring to autumn, in white to deep pink colors and can be easily grown on pillars, small arbors, and fences. It can grow 5 to 8 feet in tall. The some of the popular varieties are Louise Odier, Madame Pierre Oger, Zephirine Drouhin, Souvenir du President Lincoln, Souvenir de La Malmaison.

Noisette Roses: Blossoming in huge clusters, noisette roses come in cream, pink, yellow, apricot, and white shades and can be trained on trellis or arbors through their tender stems. However, these roses are not much cold-hardy like the other roses on this list. It can grow 6 to 12 feet in tall. The some of the popular varieties are Blush, Aimee Vibert, Blush Noisette, Bouquet d’Or’, Champney’s Pink Cluster, Crepuscule, Madame Alfred Carriere, Reve d’Or’ and Lamarque.

Hybrid Perpetual Roses: The lovely, berry-like aroma of these roses invites many bees in the garden. Hybrid perpetual roses are vigorous growers, coming in pink, purple, red, and white colors and also fragrant making it one of the Best Rose Varieties. It can grow 4 to 6 feet in tall. The some of the popular varieties are Paul Neyron, La Reine, ‘Baroness Rothschild, ‘Baronne Prévost, Candeur Lyonnaise, ‘Ferdinand Pichard, Frau Karl Druschki, Général Jacqueminot, Henry Nevard, Mabel Morrison.

Tea Roses: These tea-scented roses have pointed buds that open to large flowers. They have weak flower stalks and are available in white, pink, yellow colors and are the best types of roses for pots. They can also tolerate hot, humid weather. It can grow 3 to 7 feet in tall. The some of the popular varieties are Safrano, Maman Cochet, Peace, Mr. Lincoln, Veterans’ Honor, Midas Touch, Friendship, Celebrity, Tropicana, Voodoo.

Centifolia Roses: Centifolia are also known as cabbage roses, because their petals are closely packed with each other, in a globular shape, giving them an appearance of cabbage. They come in white and pink hues with an intense fragrance and flower only once in early summer. It can grow 3 to 7 feet in tall.

Gallica Roses: Gallica roses flower once in early summer and release a heady fragrance. Flowering in diverse colors of deep pink, red, purple, and maroon, these roses are also disease-resistant and best suited for pots or small gardens. It can grow 3 to 5 feet in tall.

Alba Roses: White to pink flowers, with blue-green foliage of alba roses, are best suited for in shady areas like a balcony or patio, as they can tolerate cold and shade both. It can grow 6 to 8 feet in tall.

Moss Roses: Moss roses grow small flowers like miniature roses in colors like red, pink, yellow, magenta, dark orange, and white. They are well suited to tropical, warm climates, and their low-growing and trailing habit make them a perfect choice for ground covers and bedding. You can also grow them in hanging baskets as well. It can grow 1 to 2 feet in tall.

Planting Roses

When to Plant Roses

If you order bare-root roses from a mail-order company, order with your planting date in mind. Bare-root roses should be planted soon after they arrive. They are usually shipped in the early spring when plants are fully dormant, well before they have leafed out. They’ll look like a bundle of sticks on arrival. Note that they are not dead—simply dormant! Check that the packing material is moist and keep them in a cool dark place until ready to plant.

  • In colder regions, plant bare-root roses as soon as the soil is workable in the spring.

  • In warmer regions, plant bare-root roses in the early spring or late fall, as long as the plant is dormant.

If you are buying potted roses, it’s best to plant them by late spring for best results. However, you can plant them almost any time during the growing season—just be sure to keep them well watered, especially during summer!

Selecting and Preparing a Planting Site

  • Plant roses where they will receive a minimum of 6 hours of sun per day. Morning sun is especially important because it dries the leaves, which helps prevent diseases. Roses grown in partial sun may not die at once, but they weaken gradually, producing subpar blooms and overwintering poorly.

  • Remember that light changes as the angle of the sun shifts throughout the season. If you live in the northern half of the U.S., choose a site that will offer full sun year-round. The more sun you have, the more flowers your plants will produce. In the southern half of the U.S., choose spots with a little bit of afternoon shade. This protects blossoms from the scorching sun and helps your flowers last longer.

  • If you live in a colder climate, consider growing roses close to the foundation of your home. This provides plants with some degree of winter protection. Walkways are also good spots, provided there is full sun.

  • If you’re planning for multiple roses, be sure not to crowd. Good air circulation helps prevent fungal diseases such as powdery and downy mildew.

  • Roses need a soil that drains well but holds onto moisture long enough for the roots to absorb some. One of the worst mistakes you can make is to not provide adequate drainage. Roses do not like wet, cold feet.

  • Roses like loose, loamy soil leaning more toward sandy. Too much clay and the roots can become waterlogged. If you are not starting out with a loose, loamy soil, you will need to do some amending.

  • Roses prefer a slightly acidic soil pH between 5.5 and 7.0. A pH of 6.5 is just about right for most home gardens.

  • An accurate soil test will tell you where your pH currently stands. Acidic (sour) soil is counteracted by applying finely ground limestone; alkaline (sweet) soil is treated with ground sulfur.

Planting Roses

  • Wear sturdy gloves to protect your hands from prickly thorns. Have a hose or bucket of water and all your planting tools nearby.

  • Soak bare-root roses in a bucket of water for 8-12 hours before planting.

  • Prune each cane back to 3-5 buds per cane. Any cane thinner than a pencil should be removed.

  • If planting container grown roses, loosen the roots before planting.

  • When you plant the rose, be sure to dig a much bigger hole than you think you need (for most types, the planting hole should be about 15 to 18 inches wide) and add plenty of organic matter such as compost or aged manure.

  • Water liberally after planting.

  • Mound up loose soil around the canes to protect the rose while it acclimates to its new site.

  • Some old-timers recommend placing a 4-inch square of gypsum wallboard and a 16-penny nail in the hole to provide calcium and iron, both appreciated by roses.

  • Don’t crowd the roses if you plan to plant more than one rose bush. Roses should be planted about two-thirds of the expected height apart. Old garden roses will need more space, while miniature roses can be planted closer.

Growing Roses

Deadheading Roses

After roses bloom, be sure to deadhead religiously if you want to prolong flowering. Every leaf has a growth bud, so removing old flower blossoms encourages the plant to make more flowers instead of using the energy to make seeds.

  • It’s worth deadheading at least once a week and even daily in midsummer.

  • To deadhead, cut back to the first leaf below the spent flower. A new shoot will then grow from this point.

  • As well as deadheading religiously, keep the beds clean. Remove any debris around the rose bush that can harbor disease and insects.

  • Late in the season, stop deadheading rugosas so that hips will form on the plants; these can be harvested and dried on screens, away from sunlight, then stored in an airtight container.

  • Stop deadheading all your rose bushes 3 to 4 weeks before the first hard frost so as not to encourage new growth at a time when new shoots may be damaged by the cold.

Watering Roses

  • Diligently water your roses. Soak the entire root zone at least twice a week in dry summer weather. Avoid frequent shallow sprinklings, which won’t reach the deeper roots and may encourage fungus. In the fall reduce the amount of water, but do not allow roses to completely dry out.

  • Roses love water—but don’t drown them. That is, they don’t like to sit in water, and they’ll die if the soil is too wet in winter. The ideal soil is rich and loose, with good drainage. One of the worst mistakes you can make is to not provide adequate drainage.

  • Use mulch around your roses. To help conserve water, reduce stress, and encourage healthy growth, apply a 2- to 4-inch layer of chopped and shredded leaves, grass clippings, or shredded bark around the base of your roses. Allow about 1 inch of space between the mulch and the base stem of the plant.

Feeding Roses

  • Artificial liquid fertilizers tend to promote plant growth that is soft and tender, and this type of foliage can attract aphids and other pests. Instead, rely on compost and natural fertilizers to feed your plants before and throughout the blooming cycle.

  • Once a month between April and July, you could apply a balanced granular fertilizer (5-10-5 or 5-10-10). Allow 3/4 to 1 cup for each bush, and sprinkle it around the drip line, not against the stem.

  • In May and June, you could scratch in an additional tablespoon of Epsom salts along with the fertilizer; the magnesium sulfate will encourage new growth from the bottom of the bush.

  • Banana peels are a good source of calcium, sulfur, magnesium, and phosphates—all things that roses like. (Note that it will take longer for your roses to reap the benefits from bananas than it would with pure soil amendments.) Here are three ways to serve them up:

  1. Lay a strip of peel at the base of each bush.

  2. Bury a black, mushy banana next to each bush.

  3. Chop up the peels, let them sit for two weeks in a sealed jar of water, and pour the mixture under each bush.

Pruning Roses

  • When pruning, be judicious. If you prune too hard in autumn, plants can be damaged beyond recovery. Instead, wait until spring, when plants begin to leaf out for the new season. (Roses are often not the earliest plants in the garden to respond to spring’s warming temperatures, so be patient.) Give the plant time to show its leaf buds then prune above that level.

  • Destroy all old or diseased plant material. Wear elbow-length gloves that are thick enough to protect your hands from thorns or a clumsy slip, but flexible enough to allow you to hold your tools. Always wear safety goggles; branches can whip back when released.

  • Don’t cut back or move roses in summer, as they might suffer and die in the heat. Large rose canes can be cut back by as much as two thirds, and smaller ones to within 6 to 12 inches of the ground.

  • Use pruning shears for smaller growth. Use loppers, which look like giant, long-handle shears, for growth that is more than half an inch thick. A small pruning saw is handy, as it cuts on both the push and the pull.

  • Not all types of roses are pruned the same way or at the same time of year.

Winterizing Roses

  • Do not prune roses in the fall. Simply cut off any dead or diseased canes.

  • Clean up the rose beds to prevent overwintering of diseases. One last spray for fungus with a dormant spray is a good idea.

  • Stop fertilizing 6 weeks before the first fall frost but continue watering during dry fall weather to help keep plants healthy during a dry winter.

  • Add mulch or compost around the roses after a few frosts but before the ground freezes. Where temperatures stay below freezing during winter, enclose the plant with a sturdy mesh cylinder, filling the enclosure with compost, mulch, dry wood chips, pine needles, or chopped leaves (don’t use maple leaves for mulch, as they can promote mold growth).

Pests and Diseases

Good gardening practices, such as removing dead leaves and canes, will help reduce pests. If problems develop, horticultural oil and insecticidal soap can help control insects and mildews. Possible rose pests and problems:

  • Japanese Beetles: See many tips for deterring these pests including great companion plants for roses which will help prevent Japanese Beetles.

  • Aphids: All plants deal with aphids which are easy to manage with a spray of water or insecticidal soap; just stay on top of your plants and check consistently.

  • Spider Mites: Mites are very tiny relatives of spiders. They can be red, black, or brown in color. Mites pierce the underside of rose leaves and suck sap, causing the leaf to turn gray or bronze. A fine web is a sign of a heavy infestation. Mites reproduce rapidly, resulting in high populations in a short time. Mites flourish in crowded, stagnant gardens. A high-pressure washing with water from a garden hose directed to the underside of the leaves every 2-3 days can manage mites. This will interrupt their life cycle. Miticides such as dicofol help in heavy infestations. Insecticidal soaps are also effective in controlling mites.

  • Leaf Cutter Bees: It is unusual to see the insects at work, but they make their presence known by the perfectly round holes cut near the edges of the leaves. These leaf pieces are used to make egg partitions inside their burrows. The damage they cause is strictly cosmetic and warrants no control.

  • Thrips: Thrips are extremely small, brown insects usually living and feeding inside of the blooms. A deformed flower with flecked or scratched petals is usually a sign of a thrips problem. The rasping mouth parts of thrips causes this injury when they scratch the petal surface to feed. Thrips are especially attracted to yellow or light-colored roses. Some control can be achieved using materials such as orthene, malathion, or insecticidal soap, but even these often give poor results. They tend to be worse during late June, July and August when temperatures are warm.

  • Rose Midge: The rose midge is a tiny fly that lays eggs in the buds and shoots of roses. The larvae that develop start feeding and causes bent, mishapen or blasted flower buds and withering of the stem tips. Eventually they turn black. Control consists of pruning out buds and applying insecticide if the problem persists. Midge damage usually shows up in July. Because the larvae fall to the soil to pupate, an effective control is to place weed barrier fabric under the plants to catch the larvae and prevent them from entering the soil to pupate.

  • Sawfly (Rose Slug): The common rose slug causes skeletonizing or window pane like damage to rose leaves in spring and early summer. The larvae look like caterpillars but are actually more closely related to bees and wasps. Common rose slugs are green with a light tan head and often have may hairlike bristles. Although they look like caterpillars, products with a BT are not effective because they are not larvae of moths or butterflies. Control can include hand picking and the use of horticultural oils or insecticidal soaps.

  • Black Spot: Rose plant leaves with black spots that eventually turn yellow have black spot. This is often caused by water splashing on leaves, especially in rainy weather. Leaves may require a protective fungicide coating, which would start in the summer before leaf spots started until first frost. Thoroughly clean up debris in the fall, and prune out all diseased canes.

  • Powdery Mildew: Leaves, buds, and stems will be covered with a white powdery coating. Mildew develops rapidly during warm, humid weather. Prevent mildew by pruning out all dead or diseased canes in the spring.

  • Botrytis Blight: This gray fungus will cause the flower buds to droop, stay closed, or turn brown. Prune off all infected blossoms and remove any dead material. Fungicide application may be necessary.

  • Stem Cankers: There are several fungi that cause cankers on roses. The different fungi can cause different-looking cankers, but they usually produce brown, oval-shaped, sunken, or shriveled areas anywhere on the cane. The cane dies, and leaves wilt from that point outward. Sometimes small black specks can be seen on the cane surface within the borders of the canker. These are fungal spore-forming structures. Cankers should be pruned out each year. Make the cut well below the affected tissue. Protect the plant from cold or freeze injury by providing adequate cover over the winter. Do not cover roses too early in the fall. When roses are mulched before the soil freezes, moisture can be trapped around the canes and this can increase the damage caused by canker disease. Keep plants vigorous with proper culture and disease control. Canker is a disease of stress. If plants are kept actively growing, they stand a better chance of avoiding cankers. There are no effective chemical controls for canker disease.

  • Mosaic: Rose mosaic is caused by a virus. Bright yellow patterns made up of wavy lines may appear on the leaves of some varieties. Other varieties may show no yellow lines, but may be stunted and weak due to virus infection. Virus-infected plants cannot be cured. Plant virus-resistant roses if possible. Try to control insects, especially aphids, since they help spread the virus. If you are pruning virus-infected plants, don't prune healthy plants unless you first disinfest your pruners. Dipping the blades in a 10 percent solution of chlorine bleach and water for 60 seconds can do this. A 25 percent concentration reduces the time needed to about 10 seconds. All infected plants should be removed and destroyed to reduce the spread of the virus to other plants.

  • Rose Rosette: Rose rosette is becoming more common and can result in significant damage. This pathogen (not yet positively identified) is spread by an eriophid mite. Symptoms include rapid growth of shoots, development of "witches' broom," development of tufts of small, deformed reddish leaves and excessive thorniness. Plants decline over time. Because affected plants can't be cured, it is best to dig out the affected plant and destroy it. Controlling the mite has been labeled as an option but attempts at controlling it have proven inconclusive. It is very difficult to apply sprays in a timely and satisfactory way.

  • Crown Gall: Crown gall is a bacterial disease that can survive 15-20 years in the soil. It causes irregularly shaped, rough, dark-colored masses (galls) to appear on stems near the soil line. These galls can appear as small swellings or be several inches in diameter. Severely infected plants become stunted and fail to grow properly. There are no effective controls for crown gall. Severely infected plants should be dug up and discarded and roses should not be planted in that area for at least 5 years. Avoid buying plants with suspicious swellings or gall on lower stems or crowns. However, do not confuse crown gall with normal swellings that you see as a result of the budding process. Protect plants from injury on stems during cultivation. Maintain vigor with fertilization and watering. Crown gall is not specific to roses and can affect apples, raspberries, honeysuckle, euonymus, and many vegetables. For this reason, roses should not be planted where plants susceptible to crown gall have been removed because of the disease. Galltrol-A, a non-pathogenic bacteria, has been used to prevent crown gall. It is often used as a dip on cane root roses prior to planting.

Benefits of Roses

  • Balances hormones (including amenorrhea)

  • Reduces inflammation of the eyes and skin

  • Soothes sore throats and coughs

  • Promotes restful and peaceful sleep

  • Cools the gastrointestinal tract

  • Soothes nervous, angry and sad emotions

  • May reduce wrinkles and slow down skin aging

  • May reduce pain due to its analgesic effects

  • Has strong antibacterial and antiseptic properties

  • Reduces blood glucose levels

  • Has neuroprotective properties

  • Has antioxidant activity


  • Rose essential oil - great for aromatherapy and for use in beauty products.

  • Rose water - delicious in food and beverage recipes as well as to soothe the skin.

  • Rose hydrosol - a cooling and hydrating skin toner.

  • Rose petal jam - a sweet uplifting treat

  • Rose tea - wonderful benefits for soothing the mind, heart and throat.

  • Rose powder - useful in herbal formulas, skin products and culinary recipes.

  • Rose plant - used as a ornamental plants.

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